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Biblioteca di genere

Aritmie e Fibrillazione atriale 

Samuel Chauveau, Olivier Le Vavasseur, Elodie Morel, Arnaud Dulac, Philippe Chevalier, Flecainide is a safe and effective treatment for pre-excited atrial fibrillation rapidly conducted to the ventricle in pregnant women: a case series, European Heart Journal - Case Reports, Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2019, ytz066,

Cecilia Linde, Maria Grazia Bongiorni, Ulrika Birgersdotter-Green, Anne B Curtis, Isabel Deisenhofer, Tetsushi Furokawa, Anne M Gillis, Kristina H Haugaa, Gregory Y H Lip, Isabelle Van Gelder, Marek Malik, Jeannie Poole, Tatjana Potpara, Irina Savelieva, Andrea Sarkozy, ESC Scientific Document Group, Sex differences in cardiac arrhythmia: a consensus document of the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society, EP Europace, Volume 20, Issue 10, October 2018, Pages 1565–1565ao,

A. Quesada Dorador, A. Prieto Martin, B. Quesada, B. Bochard, J. Jimenez, V. Palanca, B. Trejo, R. Paya, JL. Perez-Bosca, F. Arteaga, C. Albiach, F. Ridocci, C. Fernandez Diaz, J. Belchi, 185 Effect of gender on patient selection for cardiac resynchronisation therapy, EP Europace, Volume 19, Issue suppl_3, June 2017, Page iii19,

AJ. Camm, P. Amarenco, S. Haas, M. Bach, P. Kirchhof, S. Kuhls, M. Lambelet, M. Van Eickels, A G G Turpie, P300
Impact of gender: rivaroxaban for patients with atrial fibrillation in the XANTUS real-world prospective study, EP Europace, Volume 19, Issue suppl_3, June 2017, Pages iii46–iii47,

Jim W Cheung, Edward P Cheng, , Xian Wu, Ilhwan Yeo, Paul J Christos, Hooman Kamel, Steven M Markowitz, Christopher F Liu, George Thomas, James E Ip, Bruce B Lerman, Luke K Kim, Sex-based differences in outcomes, 30-day readmissions, and costs following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: the United States Nationwide Readmissions Database 2010–14, European Heart Journal, Volume 40, Issue 36, 21 September 2019, Pages 3035–3043,

Tero Penttilä, Mika Lehto, Jussi Niiranen, Juha Mehtälä, Houssem Khanfir, Riitta Lassila, Pekka Raatikainen, Differences in the risk of stroke, bleeding events, and mortality between female and male patients with atrial fibrillation during warfarin therapy, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages 29–36,

Craig I Coleman, Alexander G G Turpie, Thomas J Bunz, Daniel Eriksson, Nitesh A Sood, William L Baker, Effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with a non-sex-related CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages 64–69,

Emdin Connor A, Wong Christopher X, Hsiao Allan J, Altman Douglas G, Peters Sanne AE, Woodward Mark et al. Atrial fibrillation as risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies BMJ 2016; 352 :h7013/ DOI:10.1136/bmj.h7013

Qinmei Xiong et al. Asymptomatic versus symptomatic atrial fibrillation: A systematic review of age/gender differences and cardiovascular outcomes.  International Journal of Cardiology, 2015; Volume 191, 172 - 177 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.011

Politi, C., Ciarambino, T., Riva, L., Frasson, S., Lucci, D., Gussoni, G., Gonzini, L., Campanini, M., Gulizia, M., Di Pasquale, G., Mathieu, G., & and Investigators, on behalf of A.-A. (2016). Sex-gender and atrial fibrillation treatment in the AntiThrombotic Agents in Atrial Fibrillation (ATA-AF) study. Italian Journal of Medicine, 10(3), 207-212.

Gillis, A. M. Atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias: sex differences in electrophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical outcomes. Circulation 135, 593–608 (2017).DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.025312

Ko D, Rahman F, Schnabel RB, Yin X, Benjamin EJ, Christophersen IE. Atrial fibrillation in women: epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation, and prognosis.Nat Rev Cardiol. 2016; 13:321–332. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2016.45. DOI:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.45

Jim W Cheung, Edward P Cheng, Xian Wu, Ilhwan Yeo, Paul J Christos, Hooman Kamel, Steven M Markowitz, Christopher F Liu, George Thomas, James E Ip, Bruce B Lerman, Luke K Kim, Sex-based differences in outcomes, 30-day readmissions, and costs following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: the United States Nationwide Readmissions Database 2010–14, European Heart Journal, , ehz151,

Dagres N NR, Vardas PE, Andresen D, Lévy S, Cobbe S, Kremastinos D, et al. Gender-related differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation in Europe: a report from the Euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation. Am J Coll Cardiol2007;49:572-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.10.047

Gregory Y.H. Lip, Cécile Laroche, Giuseppe Boriani, Paolo Cimaglia, Gheorghe-Andrei Dan, Massimo Santini, Zbigniew Kalarus, Lars Hvilsted Rasmussen, Mircea Ioachim Popescu, Otilia Tica, Camilla Fragtrup Hellum, Bettina Mortensen, Luigi Tavazzi, Aldo P. Maggioni, Sex-related differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation in Europe: a report from the Euro Observational Research Programme Pilot survey on Atrial Fibrillation, EP Europace, Volume 17, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages 24–31,

Ikemura N, Kohsaka S, Kimura T, et al. Assessment of Sex Differences in the Initial Symptom Burden, Applied Treatment Strategy, and Quality of Life in Japanese Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA Netw Open. Published online March 29, 20192(3):e191145. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1145. DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1145

Humphries KH, Kerr CR, Connolly SJ, Klein G, Boone JA, Green M, Sheldon R, Talajic M, Dorian P, Newman D. New-onset atrial fibrillation: sex differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome. Circulation. 2001; 103: 2365–2370. DOI:10.1161/01.cir.103.19.2365

Piccini JP, Simon DN, Steinberg BA, et al. Differences in Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Atrial Fibrillation in Women and Men: Two-Year Results From the ORBIT-AF Registry. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1(3):282–291. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.0529. DOI:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.0529

Marzona, I., Proietti, M., Vannini, T. et al. Intern Emerg Med (2019).

Pancholy SB, Sharma PS, Pancholy DS, Patel TM, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Meta‐analysis of gender differences in residual stroke risk and major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants. Am J Cardiol. 2014; 113:485–490 DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.10.035

Antonio Gonzalez-Hermosillo J., Banos-Gonzalez M.A., Guevara-Valdivia M.E., Vazquez-Acosta J.A., de Los Rios Ibarra M.O., Aguilar-Linares K.A., Cantu-Brito C., Leiva-Pons J.L., Pozas-Garza G., Favela-Perez EA., Marquez M.F. Gender differences and management of stroke risk of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in an upper middle-income country: Insights from the CARMEN-AF registry. Int. J. Cardiol. Heart Vasc. 2019;22:117–122. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcha.2018.12.017

 Tian XT, Xu YJ, Yang YQ. Gender Differences in Arrhythmias: Focused on Atrial Fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2019 Oct 21. doi:10.1007/s12265-019-09918-w. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31637585. DOI: 10.1007/s12265-019-09918-w

Infarto miocardico

Alice M Jackson, Ruiqi Zhang, Iain Findlay, Keith Robertson, Mitchell Lindsay, Tamsin Morris, Brian Forbes, Richard Papworth, Alex McConnachie, Kenneth Mangion, Pardeep S Jhund, Colin McCowan, Colin Berry, Healthcare disparities for women hospitalized with myocardial infarction and angina, European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, , qcz040,

Seong-Mi Park, Janet Wei, Galen Cook-Wiens, Michael D Nelson, Louise Thomson, Daniel Berman, Eileen Handberg, John Petersen, David Anderson, Carl J Pepine, C Noel Bairey Merz, Left ventricular concentric remodelling and functional impairment in women with ischaemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease and intermediate coronary flow reserve: a report from the WISE-CVD study, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2019, Pages 875–882,

Kuan Ken Lee, Amy V. Ferry, Atul Anand, Fiona E. Strachan, Andrew R. Chapman, Dorien M. Kimenai, Steven J.R. Meex, Colin Berry, Iain Findlay, Alan Reid, Anne Cruickshank, Alasdair Gray, Paul O. Collinson, Fred S. Apple, David A. McAllister, Donogh Maguire, Keith A.A. Fox, David E. Newby, Chris Tuck, Catriona Keerie, Christopher J. Weir, Anoop S.V. Shah, Nicholas L. Mills, on behalf of the High-STEACS Investigators Sex-Specific Thresholds of High-Sensitivity Troponin in Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Oct, 74 (16) 2032-2043.DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2019.07.082

Mehta L.S., Beckie T.M., DeVon H.A., et al., American Heart Association Cardiovascular Disease in Women and Special Populations Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, and Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research (2016) Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Mar 1; 133(9): 916–947. DOI:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000351

Stephan Achenbach, Coronary calcium: ‘bad news’ for men, but even ‘worse news’ for women?, European Heart Journal, Volume 39, Issue 41, 01 November 2018, Pages 3736–3738,

Wenger, N.K. (2018). Sauce for the Goose Versus Sauce for the Gander: Should Men and Women Play the Same Game But With Different Rules? Circulation, 137 8, 791-793 . DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033168

Lichtman JH, Leifheit EC, Safdar B, Bao H, Krumholz HM, Lorenze NP, et al. Sex differences in the presentation and perception of symptoms among young patients with myocardial infarction: evidence from the VIRGO study (variation in recovery: role of gender on outcomes of young AMI patients). Circulation. 2018;137(8):781–90.

Ferry AV, Anand A, Strachan FE, Mooney L, Stewart SD, Marshall L, Chapman AR, Lee KK, Jones S, Orme K, Shah ASV, Mills NL. Presenting symptoms in men and women diagnosed with myocardial infarction using sex‐specific criteria. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019; 8:e012307. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.012307

Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2017 Mar 7;135(10 ):e646] [published correction appears in Circulation. 2017 Sep 5;136(10 ):e196]. Circulation. 2017;135(10):e146–e603. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485

D'Onofrio G, Safdar B, Lichtman JH, et al. Sex differences in reperfusion in young patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the VIRGO study. Circulation. 2015;131(15):1324–1332. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012293

Xu X, Bao H, Strait K, et al. Sex differences in perceived stress and early recovery in young and middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2015;131(7):614–623. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012826

Bucholz EM, Strait KM, Dreyer RP, et al. Effect of low perceived social support on health outcomes in young patients with acute myocardial infarction: results from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(5):e001252. Published 2014 Sep 30. doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.001252

Leifheit-Limson EC, D'Onofrio G, Daneshvar M, et al. Sex Differences in Cardiac Risk Factors, Perceived Risk, and Health Care Provider Discussion of Risk and Risk Modification Among Young Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: The VIRGO Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(18):1949–1957. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.859

Ferry AV, Anand A, Strachan FE, et al. Presenting Symptoms in Men and Women Diagnosed With Myocardial Infarction Using Sex-Specific Criteria. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(17):e012307. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.012307

Lichtman JH, Leifheit-Limson EC, Watanabe E, et al. Symptom recognition and healthcare experiences of young women with acute myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8(2 Suppl 1):S31–S38. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001612

Stehli J, Martin C, Brennan A, Dinh DT, Lefkovits J, Zaman S. Sex Differences Persist in Time to Presentation, Revascularization, and Mortality in Myocardial Infarction Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(10):e012161. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.012161 

Graham G. Acute Coronary Syndromes in Women: Recent Treatment Trends and Outcomes. Clin Med Insights Cardiol. 2016;10:1–10. Published 2016 Feb 8. doi:10.4137/CMC.S37145

Park SM, Merz CN. Women and Ischemic Heart Disease: Recognition, Diagnosis and Management. Korean Circ J. 2016;46(4):433–442. doi:10.4070/kcj.2016.46.4.433

Christine Pacheco, Janet Wei, Margo Minissian, Chrisandra L Shufelt, Sarah J Kilpatrick, Odayme Quesada, C Noel Bairey Merz, Cardiovascular and pregnancy outcomes in women with coronary microvascular dysfunction: a case series, European Heart Journal - Case Reports, Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2019, ytz071, 

 Puglisi R, Mattia G, Carè A, Marano G, Malorni W, Matarrese P. Non-genomic Effects of Estrogen on Cell Homeostasis and Remodeling With Special Focus on Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Front. Endocrinol., 25 October 2019 |

Sex-Related Differences in Heart Failure After ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Edina Cenko, Mihaela van der Schaar, Jinsung Yoon, Olivia Manfrini, Zorana Vasiljevic, Marija Vavlukis, Sasko Kedev, Davor Miličić, Lina Badimon, Raffaele Bugiardini J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Nov, 74 (19) 2379-2389. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.08.1047
The Feminine Mystique in Myocardial Infarction Associated Mortality Joan Briller J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Nov, 74 (19) 2390-2391. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.09.013
Scompenso cardiaco

Hassanein M, Abdelhamid M, Ibrahim B, Sobhy M, Nasr G, Aboleineen MW et al (2018) Gender differences in Egyptian patients hospitalized with heart failure: insights from the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. ESC Heart Fail  2018 Dec;5(6):1159-1164. DOI:10.1002/ehf2.12347

AlBadri A, Lai K, Wei J, et al. Inflammatory biomarkers as predictors of heart failure in women without obstructive coronary artery disease: A report from the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0177684. Published 2017 May 19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177684

Bozkurt B, Khalaf S. Heart Failure in Women. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2017;13(4):216–223. doi:10.14797/mdcj-13-4-216

Bouthoorn S, Valstar GB, Gohar A, et al. The prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in men and women with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018;15:477–93. 10.1177/147916411878741

Bouthoorn S, Gohar A, Valstar G, et al. Prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2018;17:58 10.1186/s12933-018-0690-3

Scantlebury DC, Borlaug BA, a BB. Why are women more likely than men to develop heart failure with preserved ejection fraction? Curr Opin Cardiol 2011;26:562–8. 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32834b7faf

Eikendal ALM, Gohar A, Rutten FH, et al. Sex-Specific relations of cardiovascular risk factors with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction/heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are underreported: a call for action. J Card Fail 2018. 24:412–4. 10.1016/j.cardfail.2018.03.001

Sharma K, Al Rifai M, Ahmed HM, et al. Usefulness of coronary artery calcium to predict heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in men versus women (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Am J Cardiol 2017;120:1847–53. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.07.089

Toma M, Mak GJ, Chen V, et al. Differentiating heart failure phenotypes using sex-specific transcriptomic and proteomic biomarker panels. ESC Heart Fail 2017;4:301–11. 10.1002/ehf2.12136

Bakir M, Nelson MD, Jones E, et al. Heart failure hospitalization in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia: a report from the women’s ischemia syndrome evaluation study. Int J Cardiol 2016;223:936–9. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.301

De Bellis, A., De Angelis, G., Fabris, E. et al. Heart Fail Rev (2019).

M.R. Shah, C.B. Granger, B.A. Bart, et al. Sex-related differences in the use and adverse effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure: the study of patients intolerant of converting enzyme inhibitors registry Am J Med, 109 (2000), pp. 489-492. DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00529-5
T. Simon, M. Mary-Krause, C. Funck-Brentano, P. Jaillon. Sex differences in the prognosis of congestive heart failure results from the Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study (CIBIS II)Circulation, 103 (2001), pp. 375-380. DOI: 10.1161/01.cir.103.3.375
F. Gustafsson, C. Torp-Pedersen, H. Burchardt, et al.Female sex is associated with a better long-term survival in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure Eur Heart J, 25 (2004), pp. 129-135. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi022
S.K. Majahalme, L. Baruch, N. Aknay, et al.Comparison of treatment benefit and outcome in women versus men with chronic heart failure (from the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial) Am J Cardiol, 95 (2005), pp. 529-532
E. O’Meara, T. Clayton, M.B. McEntegart, et al.Sex differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure: results of the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program
Circulation, 115 (2007), pp. 3111-3120 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.673442
A.M. Russo, J.E. Poole, D.B. Mark, et al.Primary prevention with defibrillator therapy in women: Results from the sudden cardiac death in heart failure trial J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, 19 (2008), pp. 720-724 DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01129.x
S.S. Rathore, J.M. Foody, Y. Wang, et al.Sex, quality of care, and outcomes of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure: findings from the National Heart Failure Project Am Heart J, 149 (2005), pp. 121-128. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.06.008
R. Sheppard, H. Behlouli, H. Richard, L. PiloteEffect of gender on treatment, resource utilization, and outcomes in congestive heart failure in Quebec, Canada Am J Cardiol, 95 (2005), pp. 955-959 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.06.008
M.J. Lenzen, A. Rosengren, W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer, et al.Management of patients with heart failure in clinical practice: differences between men and women Heart, 94 (2008), p. e10. DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2006.099523
C.W. Yancy, G.C. Fonarow, N.M. Albert, et al.Influence of patient age and sex on delivery of guideline-recommended heart failure care in the outpatient cardiology practice setting: Findings from IMPROVE HF Am Heart J, 157 (2009), pp. 754-762.e2 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.12.016
C. Linde, M. Ståhlberg, L. Benson, et al.Gender, underutilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy, and prognostic impact of QRS prolongation and left bundle branch block in heart failure Europace, 17 (2015), pp. 424-431. DOI: 10.1093/europace/euu205
S.S. Rathore, Y. Wang, H.M. KrumholzSex-based differences in the effect of digoxin for the treatment of heart failure N Engl J Med, 347 (2002), pp. 1403-1411 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa021266
Dewan P, Rørth R, Jhund PS, Shen L, Raparelli V, Petrie MC, Abraham WT, Desai AS, Dickstein K, Køber L, Mogensen UM, Packer M, Rouleau JL, Solomon SD, Swedberg K, Zile MR, McMurray JJV (2019) Differential impact of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction on men and women. J Am Coll Cardiol 73:29–40.
WALSH MN, Jessup M, Lindenfeld J. Women With Heart Failure: Unheard, Untreated, and Unstudied. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:41-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.041


Marieke T Blom, Iris Oving, Jocelyn Berdowski, Irene G M van Valkengoed, Abdenasser Bardai, Hanno L Tan, Women have lower chances than men to be resuscitated and survive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, European Heart Journal, , ehz297,

Karin A L Mueller, David B Hanna, Erik Ehinger, Xiaonan Xue, Livia Baas, Meinrad P Gawaz, Tobias Geisler, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge H Cohen, Stephen J Gange, Sonya L Heath, Jason M Lazar, Chenglong Liu, Wendy J Mack, Igho Ofotokun, Phyllis C Tien, Howard N Hodis, Alan L Landay, Robert C Kaplan, Klaus Ley, Loss of CXCR4 on non-classical monocytes in participants of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with subclinical atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 115, Issue 6, 01 May 2019, Pages 1029–1040,

Ian D van Koeverden, Marie de Bakker, Saskia Haitjema, Sander W van der Laan, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Imo E Hoefer, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp, Hester M den Ruijter, Testosterone to oestradiol ratio reflects systemic and plaque inflammation and predicts future cardiovascular events in men with severe atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 115, Issue 2, 01 February 2019, Pages 453–462,

 Michael Fiechter, Andrea Roggo, Irene A Burger, Susan Bengs, Valerie Treyer, Anton Becker, Monika Marȩdziak, Ahmed Haider, Angela Portmann, Michael Messerli, Dimitri Patriki, Urs J Mühlematter, Elia von Felten, Dominik C Benz, Tobias A Fuchs, Christoph Gräni, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann, Catherine Gebhard, Association between resting amygdalar activity and abnormal cardiac function in women and men: a retrospective cohort study, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, Volume 20, Issue 6, June 2019, Pages 625–632,

 J Tamargo, G Rosano, T Walther, J Duarte, A Niessner, JC Kaski, C Ceconi, H Drexel, K Kjeldsen, G Savarese, C Torp-Pedersen, D Atar, BS Lewis, S Agewall, Gender differences in the effects of cardiovascular drugs, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2017, Pages 163–182,

Takeo Onose, Yasuhiko Sakata, Kotaro Nochioka, Masanobu Miura, Takeshi Yamauchi, Kanako Tsuji, Ruri Abe, Takuya Oikawa, Shintaro Kasahara, Masayuki Sato, Takashi Shiroto, Satoshi Miyata, Jun Takahashi, Hiroaki Shimokawa, on behalf of the CHART-2 Investigators, Sex differences in post-traumatic stress disorder in cardiovascular patients after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a report from the CHART-2 Study, European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2017, Pages 224–233,

Gerdts, E., Regitz-Zagrosek, V. Sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders. Nat Med 25, 1657–1666 (2019).

Mogil JS2012Sex differences in pain and pain inhibition: multiple explanations of a controversial phenomenonNat Rev Neurosci 13859– 866DOI:10.1038/nrn3360

Traub RJJi Y2013Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue painFront Neuroendocrinol 34350– 366. DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2013.07.002

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Peters, S.A.E. & Woodward, M. Sex Differences in the Burden and Complications of Diabetes. Curr Diab Rep (2018) 18: 33.  DOI:10.1007/s11892-018-1005-5

Nadal-Casellas, A., Proenza, A. M., Llado, I. & Gianotti, M. Sex-dependent differences in rat hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in response to diet-induced obesity. Biochem. Cell Biol. 90, 164–172 (2012) DOI:10.1139/o11-069

Geer, E. B. & Shen, W. Gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Gend Med. 6, 60–75 (2009). DOI:10.1016/j.genm.2009.02.002

Hoeg, L. D. et al. Lipid-induced insulin resistance affects women less than men and is not accompanied by inflammation or impaired proximal insulin signaling. Diabetes 60, 64–73 (2010). DOI: 10.2337/db10-0698

Logue, J. et al. Do men develop type 2 diabetes at lower body mass indices than women? Diabetologia 54, 3003–3006 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2313-3

Kautzky-Willer, A., Harreiter, J. & Pacini, G. Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr. Rev. 37, 278–316 (2016). DOI:10.1210/er.2015-1137

Macotela, Y., Boucher, J., Tran, T. T. & Kahn, C. R. Sex and depot differences in adipocyte insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Diabetes 58, 803–812 (2009). DOI:10.2337/db08-1054

Wang, Y., O’Neil, A., Jiao, Y. et al. Sex differences in the association between diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 5,162,654 participants. BMC Med (2019) 17: 136.

Escolar-Pujolar, A. et al. The effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in diabetes mortality in Andalusia. Endocrinol. Diabetes Nutr. 65, 21–29 (2018). DOI:10.1016/j.endinu.2017.10.006

Russo GT, Giandalia A, Romeo EL, Nunziata M, Muscianisi M, Ruffo MC, Catalano A, Cucinotta D. Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes: current perspectives and gender differences. Int J Endocrinol. 2016;2016:1615735. DOI:10.1155/2016/1615735

Oikonomou E, Tsigkou V, Lazaros G, et al. The interaction between gender and diabetes mellitus in the coronary heart disease risk. Curr Pharm Des 2016;6:6. DOI:10.2174/1381612822666160606202111

F. Mauvais-Jarvis Gender differences in glucose homeostasis and diabetes Physiol. Behav. (2017) S0031-9384(17)30262-7. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.08.016

Sattar N. Gender aspects in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2013) 27:501–7. DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2013.05.006

 Harreiter J, Kautzky-Willer A. Sex and gender differences in prevention of type 2 diabetes. Front Endocrinol. (2018) 9:220. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2018.00220

Gregg EW, Gu Q, Cheng YJ, Narayan KM, Cowie CC. Mortality trends in men and women with diabetes, 1971 to 2000. Ann Intern Med. (2007) 147:149–55. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-147-3-200708070-00167

Mascarenhas-Melo F, Marado D, Palavra F, Sereno J, Coelho Á, Pinto R, et al. Diabetes abrogates sex differences and aggravates cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women. Cardiovasc Diabetol. (2013) 12:61. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-61

 Steinberg HO, Paradisi G, Cronin J, Crowde K, Hempfling A, Hook G, et al. Type II diabetes abrogates sex differences in endothelial function in premenopausal women. Circulation (2000) 101:2040–6.

Peterson LR, Saeed IM, McGill JB, Herrero P, Schechtman KB, Gunawardena R, et al. Sex and type 2 diabetes: obesity-independent effects on left ventricular substrate metabolism and relaxation in humans. Obesity (2012) 20:802–10. DOI:10.1038/oby.2011.208

Lyons MR, Peterson LR, McGill JB, Herrero P, Coggan AR, Saeed IM, et al. Impact of sex on the heart's metabolic and functional responses to diabetic therapies. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. (2013) 305:H1584–91. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00420.2013

Kautzky-Willer A, Harreiter J. Sex and gender differences in therapy of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract (2017) 131:230–41. DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.012

Glechner A, Harreiter J, Gartlehner G, Rohleder S, Kautzky A, Tuomilehto J, et al. Sex-specific differences in diabetes prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia (2015) 58(2):242–54. DOI:10.1007/s00125-014-3439-x

Yang W, Lu J, Weng J, Jia W, Ji L, Xiao J, et al. Prevalence of diabetes among men and women in China. N Engl J Med. (2010) 362:1090–101. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0908292

Arnetz L, Ekberg NR, Alvarsson M. Sex differences in type 2 diabetes: focus on disease course and outcomes. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. (2014) 7:409–20. DOI:10.2147/DMSO.S51301

Perreault L, Ma Y, Dagogo-Jack S, Horton E, Marrero D, Crandall J, et al. Sex differences in diabetes risk and the effect of intensive lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care (2008) 31(7):1416–21.  DOI:10.2337/dc07-2390

Raparelli V, Proietti M, Romiti GF, Lenzi A, Basili S; EVA Collaborative Group. The Sex-Specific Detrimental Effect of Diabetes and Gender-Related Factors on Pre-admission Medication Adherence Among Patients Hospitalized for Ischemic Heart Disease: Insights From EVA Study. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:107. Published 2019 Feb 25. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00107 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00107

Huebschmann AG, Huxley RR, Kohrt WM, Zeitler P, Regensteiner JG, Reusch JEB.Sex differences in the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk across the life course. Diabetologia. 2019 Oct;62(10):1761-1772. DOI:10.1007/s00125-019-4939-5

Al-Salameh A, Chanson P, Bucher S, Ringa V, Becquemont L.Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Sex-Related Differences in Predisposition and Prevention Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Feb; 94(2):287-308. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.08.007

Rossi MCCristofaro MRGentile SLucisano GManicardi VMulas MFNapoli ANicolucci APellegrini FSuraci CGiorda CAMD Annals Study Group. Sex disparities in the quality of diabetes care: biological and cultural factors may play a different role for different outcomes: a cross-sectional observational study from the AMD Annals initiative. Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct;36(10):3162-8. DOI:10.2337/dc13-0184

 Manicardi V, Russo G, Napoli A, Torlone E, Li Volsi P, Giorda CB, Musacchio N, Nicolucci A, Suraci C, Lucisano G, et al. Gender-Disparities in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: More Than a Quality of Care Issue. A Cross-Sectional Observational Study from the AMD Annals Initiative. PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0162960. Epub 2016 Oct 3. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162960

Russo GPintaudi BGiorda CLucisano GNicolucci ACristofaro MRSuraci CMulas MFNapoli ARossi MCManicardi VAge- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:957105. DOI:10.1155/2015/957105

Manicardi V, Rossi MC, Romeo EL. Et al. Gender differences in type 2 diabetes (Italy). Ital J Gender-Specific Med 2016; 2(2): 60-68. DOI 10.1723/2446.25646

V. Manicardi, G. Russo, M.C. Rossi (2019) Donne, diabete e rischio cardiovascolare. JAMD Vol. 21-4.


Kanter R, Caballero B. Global gender disparities in obesity: a review. Adv Nutr (2012) 3(4):491–8. DOI:10.3945/an.112.002063

Lovejoy JC, Sainsbury A; Stock Conference 2008 Working Group. Sex differences in obesity and the regulation of energy  homeostasis. Obes Rev (2009) 10(2):154–67. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00529.x

Kautzky-Willer A, Handisurya A. Metabolic diseases and associated complications: sex and gender matter! Eur J Clin Invest (2009) 39(8):631–48. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02161.x

Ciampolillo, A. (2019). Metabolic syndrome and gut microbiota: there is a gender difference? Ital J Gender-Specific Med 2019; 5(1):21-26. DOI 10.1723/3148.31295 

Link JC, Reue K. Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 2017;37:225–245. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064827 DOI:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064827

Chang E, Varghese M, Singer K. Gender and Sex Differences in Adipose Tissue. Curr Diab Rep. 2018;18(9):69. Published 2018 Jul 30. doi:10.1007/s11892-018-1031-3

Valencak TG, Osterrieder A, Schulz TJ. Sex matters: The effects of biological sex on adipose tissue biology and energy metabolism. Redox Biol. 2017;12:806–813. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2017.04.012

White UA, Tchoukalova YD. Sex dimorphism and depot differences in adipose tissue function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842(3):377–392. 

Link JC, Hasin-Brumshtein Y, Cantor RM, et al. Diet, gonadal sex, and sex chromosome complement influence white adipose tissue miRNA expression. BMC Genomics. 2017;18(1):89. Published 2017 Jan 17. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.05.006

Xu YXZ, Ande SR, Mishra S. Gonadectomy in Mito-Ob mice revealed a sex-dimorphic relationship between prohibitin and sex steroids in adipose tissue biology and glucose homeostasis. Biol Sex Differ. 2018;9(1):37. DOI:10.1186/s13293-018-0196-4

 Tao Z, Zheng LD, Smith C, et al. Estradiol signaling mediates gender difference in visceral adiposity via autophagy. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9(3):309. DOI:10.1038/s41419-018-0372-9

Recettori per estrogeni

Fuentes N, Silveyra P. Estrogen receptor signaling mechanisms. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2019;116:135–170.

 Vona, R., Gambardella, L., Ortona, E., Santulli, M., Malorni, W., Carè, A., Pietraforte, D., & Straface, E. (2019). Functional Estrogen Receptors of Red Blood Cells. Do They Influence Intracellular Signaling?  Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, 53 1 , 186-199 

 Subhashis Banerjee, Ken L. Chambliss, Chieko Mineo, Philip W. Shaul. Recent insights into non-nuclear actions of estrogen receptor alpha. Steroids. 2014 Mar; 81: 64–69. 

Mahmoodzadeh S, Dworatzek E. The Role of 17β-Estradiol and Estrogen Receptors in Regulation of Ca2+ Channels and Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:310.  


J Tamargo, G Rosano, T Walther, J Duarte, A Niessner, JC Kaski, C Ceconi, H Drexel, K Kjeldsen, G Savarese, C Torp-Pedersen, D Atar, BS Lewis, S Agewall, Gender differences in the effects of cardiovascular drugs, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2017, Pages 163–182,

Gender Differences in the Pharmacological Actions of Pegylated Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Angiogenic Precursor Cells in a Combination of Metabolic Disorders and Lung Emphysema.Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 30;20(21). pii: E5414.

Greco EA, Lenzi A, Migliaccio S, Gessani S. Epigenetic Modifications Induced by Nutrients in Early Life Phases: Gender Differences in Metabolic Alteration in Adulthood. Front Genet. 2019 Sep 11;10:795. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00795.eCollection 2019. Review. PubMed PMID: 31572434; PubMed Central PMCID: MC6749846.



Lee C, Kim J, Jung Y. Potential Therapeutic Application of Estrogen in Gender Disparity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Cells. 2019 Oct 15;8(10). pii: E1259. doi: 10.3390/cells8101259. Review. PubMed PMID: 31619023.




Laganà B, Zullo A, Scribano ML, et al. Sex Differences in Response to TNF-Inhibiting Drugs in Patients With Spondyloarthropathies or Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:47. Published 2019 Jan 28. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.00047

González DA, Díaz BB, Rodríguez Pérez Mdel C, Hernández AG, Chico BN, de León AC. Sex hormones and autoimmunity. Immunol Lett. 2010;133(1):6–13. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2010.07.001

Avila M, Bansal A, Culberson J, Peiris AN. The Role of Sex Hormones in Multiple Sclerosis. Eur Neurol. 2018;80(1-2):93–99. doi:10.1159/000494262

Tiniakou E, Costenbader KH, Kriegel MA. Sex-specific environmental influences on the development of autoimmune diseases. Clin Immunol. 2013;149(2):182–191. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2013.02.011

Tedeschi SK, Bermas B, Costenbader KH. Sexual disparities in the incidence and course of SLE and RA. Clin Immunol. 2013;149(2):211–218. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2013.03.003

Dupuis ML, Conti F, Maselli A, et al. The Natural Agonist of Estrogen Receptor β Silibinin Plays an Immunosuppressive Role Representing a Potential Therapeutic Tool in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1903. Published 2018 Aug 17. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01903

Immunità anti-infettiva

Ingersoll MA. Sex differences shape the response to infectious diseases. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(12):e1006688. Published 2017 Dec 28. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006688

 Vom Steeg LG, Flores-Garcia Y, Zavala F, Klein SL. Irradiated sporozoite vaccination induces sex-specific immune responses and protection against malaria in mice. Vaccine. 2019;37(32):4468–4476. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.075

Muenchhoff M, Goulder PJ. Sex differences in pediatric infectious diseases. J Infect Dis. 2014;209 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S120–S126. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiu232

Ghosh S, Klein RS. Sex Drives Dimorphic Immune Responses to Viral Infections. J Immunol. 2017;198(5):1782–1790. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1601166

Ruggieri A, Gagliardi MC, Anticoli S. Sex-Dependent Outcome of Hepatitis B and C Viruses Infections: Synergy of Sex Hormones and Immune Responses?. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2302. Published 2018 Oct 8. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02302

Sistema immunitario


Elderman M, Hugenholtz F, Belzer C, et al. Sex and strain dependent differences in mucosal immunology and microbiota composition in mice. Biol Sex Differ. 2018;9(1):26. Published 2018 Jun 18. doi:10.1186/s13293-018-0186-6

Ortona E, Pierdominici M, Rider V. Editorial: Sex Hormones and Gender Differences in Immune Responses. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1076. Published 2019 May 9. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.01076

Bernin H, Fehling H, Marggraff C, Tannich E, Lotter H. The cytokine profile of human NKT cells and PBMCs is dependent on donor sex and stimulus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2016;205(4):321–332. doi:10.1007/s00430-016-0449-y

Jaillon S, Berthenet K, Garlanda C. Sexual Dimorphism in Innate Immunity. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019;56(3):308–321. doi:10.1007/s12016-017-8648-x

Gal-Oz ST, Maier B, Yoshida H, et al. ImmGen report: sexual dimorphism in the immune system transcriptome. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):4295. Published 2019 Sep 20. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12348-6

Libert C, Dejager L, Pinheiro I. The X chromosome in immune functions: when a chromosome makes the difference. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10(8):594–604. doi:10.1038/nri2815

 Pinheiro I, Dejager L, Libert C. X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: might they explain male/female differences? The X chromosome-genomic context may affect X-located miRNAs and downstream signaling, thereby contributing to the enhanced immune response of females. Bioessays. 2011;33(11):791–802. doi:10.1002/bies.201100047

Klein SL, Flanagan KL. Sex differences in immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016;16(10):626–638. doi:10.1038/nri.2016.90


Flanagan KL, Fink AL, Plebanski M, Klein SL. Sex and Gender Differences in the Outcomes of Vaccination over the Life Course. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2017;33:577–599. doi:10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100616-060718

 Hoes J, Knol MJ, Mollema L, Buisman A, de Melker HE, van der Klis FRM. Comparison of antibody response between boys and girls after infant and childhood vaccinations in the Netherlands. Vaccine. 2019;37(32):4504–4510. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.055

Baynam G, Zhang G, Khoo SK, et al. Gender-specific effects of cytokine gene polymorphisms on childhood vaccine responses. Vaccine. 2008;26(29-30):3574–3579. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.011

Potluri T, Fink AL, Sylvia KE, et al. Age-associated changes in the impact of sex steroids on influenza vaccine responses in males and females [published correction appears in NPJ Vaccines. 2019 Aug 12;4:35]. NPJ Vaccines. 2019;4:29. Published 2019 Jul 12. doi:10.1038/s41541-019-0124-6

Fischinger S, Boudreau CM, Butler AL, Streeck H, Alter G. Sex differences in vaccine-induced humoral immunity. Semin Immunopathol. 2019;41(2):239–249. doi:10.1007/s00281-018-0726-5

Boef AGC, van der Klis FRM, Berbers GAM, et al. Differences by sex in IgG levels following infant and childhood vaccinations: An individual participant data meta-analysis of vaccination studies. Vaccine. 2018;36(3):400–407. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.070

Fink AL, Engle K, Ursin RL, Tang WY, Klein SL. Biological sex affects vaccine efficacy and protection against influenza in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(49):12477–12482. doi:10.1073/pnas.1805268115

Colombo D, Chimenti S, Grossi PA, et al. Prevalence of acute and chronic viral seropositivity and characteristics of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with cyclosporine: a post hoc analysis from a sex point of view on the observational study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2015;9:1–7. Published 2015 Dec 22. doi:10.2147/CCID.S88306

Vázquez-Martínez ER, García-Gómez E, Camacho-Arroyo I, González-Pedrajo B. Sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections. Biol Sex Differ. 2018;9(1):27. Published 2018 Jun 20. doi:10.1186/s13293-018-0187-5 

Reardon S. Infections reveal inequality between the sexes. Nature. 2016;534(7608):447. doi:10.1038/534447a

Humphreys H, Fitzpatick F, Harvey BJ. Gender differences in rates of carriage and bloodstream infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: are they real, do they matter and why?. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(11):1708–1714. doi:10.1093/cid/civ576

Celestino I, Checconi P, Amatore D, et al. Differential Redox State Contributes to Sex Disparities in the Response to Influenza Virus Infection in Male and Female Mice. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1747. Published 2018 Jul 30. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01747

Celestino I, Checconi P, Amatore D, et al. Differential Redox State Contributes to Sex Disparities in the Response to Influenza Virus Infection in Male and Female Mice. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1747. Published 2018 Jul 30. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01747

Rhines AS. The role of sex differences in the prevalence and transmission of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2013;93(1):104–107. doi:10.1016/

Úbeda F, Jansen VA. The evolution of sex-specific virulence in infectious diseases. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13849. Published 2016 Dec 13. doi:10.1038/ncomms13849

Marais GAB, Gaillard JM, Vieira C, et al. Sex gap in aging and longevity: can sex chromosomes play a role?. Biol Sex Differ. 2018;9(1):33. 

Ostan R, Monti D, Gueresi P, Bussolotto M, Franceschi C, Baggio G. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016;130(19):1711–1725. 

Machiela MJ, Zhou W, Karlins E, et al. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11843. 

Oksuzyan A, Juel K, Vaupel JW, Christensen K. Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2008;20(2):91–102. doi: 10.1007/BF03324754.

Chen PL, Tsai YL, Lin MH, Wang J. Gender differences in health promotion behaviors and quality of life among community-dwelling elderly. J Women Aging. 2018;30(3):259-74.

Chylińska J, Lazarewicz M, Rzadkiewicz M, Adamus M, Jaworski M, Haugan G, et al. The role of gender in the active attitude toward treatment and health among older patients in primary health care-self-assessed health status and sociodemographic factors as moderators. BMC Geriatr. 2017; 17: 284.

Kiely KM, Brady B, Byles J. Gender, mental health and ageing. Maturitas. 2019

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Vollmer WM, Enright PL, Pedula KL, et al. Race and gender differences in the effects of smoking on lung function. Chest. 2000;117(3):764–772. doi:10.1378/chest.117.3.764

 Grotvedt L, Stigum H, Hovengen R, Graff-Iversen S. Social differences in smoking and snuff use among Norwegian adolescents: A population based survey. BMC Public Health. 2008;8(1):322. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-322.

Nguyen L, Castro O, De Dios R, Sandoval J, McKenna S, Wright CJ. Sex-differences in LPS-induced neonatal lung injury. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):8514. Published 2019 Jun 11. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-44955-0


Baldaçara RP, Silva I. Association between asthma and female sex hormones. Sao Paulo Med J. 2017;135(1):4–14. doi:10.1590/1516-3180.2016.011827016

Koper I, Hufnagl K, Ehmann R. Gender aspects and influence of hormones on bronchial asthma - Secondary publication and update. World Allergy Organ J. 2017;10(1):46. Published 2017 Dec 27. doi:10.1186/s40413-017-0177-9

Fuseini H, Newcomb DC. Mechanisms Driving Gender Differences in Asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017;17(3):19. doi:10.1007/s11882-017-0686-1

Scott HA, Gibson PG, Garg ML, Upham JW, Wood LG. Sex hormones and systemic inflammation are modulators of the obese-asthma phenotype. Allergy. 2016;71(7):1037–1047. doi:10.1111/all.12891

Barbagelata E, Cilloniz C, Nicolini A, Moretti AM.Sex differences in asthma and immunological response: an overview. Ital J Gender-Specific Med. 2019; 5(2): 68-73. doi: 10.1723/3188.31665

Ambhore, N. S., Kalidhindi, R. S. R., Pabelick, C. M., Hawse, J. R., Prakash, Y. S., Sathish, V. Differential estrogen-receptor activation regulates extracellular matrix deposition in human airway smooth muscle remodeling via NF-κB pathway. FASEB J. 2019 Oct 22:fj201901340R. doi: 10.1096/fj.201901340R.


Laviolette L, Lacasse Y, Doucet M, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women. Can Respir J. 2007;14(2):93–98. doi:10.1155/2007/46343526599602

Sørheim IC, Johannessen A, Gulsvik A, Bakke PS, Silverman EK, DeMeo DL. Gender differences in COPD: are women more susceptible to smoking effects than men?. Thorax. 2010;65(6):480–485. doi:10.1136/thx.2009.122002

Kilic H, Kokturk N, Sari G, Cakır M. Do females behave differently in COPD exacerbation?. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:823–830. Published 2015 Apr 24. doi:10.2147/COPD.S78952

Aryal S, Diaz-Guzman E, Mannino DM. Influence of sex on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and treatment outcomes. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:1145–1154. Published 2014 Oct 14. doi:10.2147/COPD.S54476

Barnes PJ. Sex Differences in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mechanisms. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;193(8):813–814. doi:10.1164/rccm.201512-2379ED

Camp PG, O'Donnell DE, Postma DS. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in men and women: myths and reality. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009;6(6):535–538. doi:10.1513/pats.200904-018DS

Aryal S, Diaz-Guzman E, Mannino DM. Influence of sex on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and treatment outcomes. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:1145–1154. Published 2014 Oct 14. doi:10.2147/COPD.S54476

 Giannico OV, Ambrosino I, Patano F, Germinario C, Quarto M, Moretti AM. Educational level, marital status and sex as social gender discharge determinants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a time-to-event analysis. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2019;89(2):10.4081/monaldi.2019.1017. Published 2019 May 24. doi:10.4081/monaldi.2019.1017

Kilic H, Kokturk N, Sari G, Cakır M. Do females behave differently in COPD exacerbation?. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:823–830. Published 2015 Apr 24. doi:10.2147/COPD.S78952

Soriano JB, Maier WC, Egger P, et al. Recent trends in physician diagnosed COPD in women and men in the UK. Thorax. 2000;55(9):789–794. doi:10.1136/thorax.55.9.789 

Cote CG, Chapman KR. Diagnosis and treatment considerations for women with COPD. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63(3):486–493. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01987.x

Gan WQ, Man SF, Postma DS, Camp P, Sin DD. Female smokers beyond the perimenopausal period are at increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Res. 2006;7(1):52. Published 2006 Mar 29. doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-52

Mannino DM, Buist AS. Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet. 2007;370(9589):765–773. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61380-4

Ambrosino I, Gallone MS, Patano F, Giannico OV, Barbagelata E, Gnerre P, Politi C, Fontanella A, Germinario CA, Moretti AM. Gender differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of hospitalization indicators. ITJM. 2019;13(1):38-4. doi: 10.4081/itjm.2019.1099 

Assad NA, Balmes J, Mehta S, Cheema U, Sood A. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;36(3):408–421. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1554846

Celli B, Vestbo J, Jenkins CR, et al. Sex differences in mortality and clinical expressions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The TORCH experience. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(3):317–322. doi:10.1164/rccm.201004-0665OC 

Celli B, Vestbo J, Jenkins CR, et al. Sex differences in mortality and clinical expressions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The TORCH experience. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(3):317–322. doi:10.1164/rccm.201004-0665OC

Tam A, Bates JH, Churg A, Wright JL, Man SF, Sin DD. Sex-Related Differences in Pulmonary Function following 6 Months of Cigarette Exposure: Implications for Sexual Dimorphism in Mild COPD. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164835. Published 2016 Oct 27. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164835

Robles PG, Brooks D, Goldstein R, Salbach N, Mathur S. Gender-associated differences in pulmonary rehabilitation outcomes in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2014;34(2):87–97. doi:10.1097/HCR.0000000000000018

Barbagelata E, Nicolini A, Ambrosino I, Politi C. Gender differences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an update on the literature. ITJM. 2018;12(3):171-9. doi: 10.4081/itjm.2018.987 

Dransfield MT, Washko GR, Foreman MG, Estepar RS, Reilly J, Bailey WC. Gender differences in the severity of CT emphysema in COPD. Chest. 2007;132(2):464–470. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0863

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