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Biblioteca di genere

La crescente consapevolezza delle differenze associate al genere e la volontà di garantire ad ogni persona la migliore cura nell’ottica della centralità del paziente e della personalizzazione delle terapie ha condotto all’approvazione, nel giugno 2019, del decreto con cui viene adottato il Piano per l’applicazione e la diffusione della Medicina di Genere previsto dall’articolo 3 della Legge 3/2018. Il GISEG ha fortemente sentito l’esigenza di creare uno strumento per consentire un aggiornamento costante e continuo in salute e Medicina di genere a chiunque sia interessato. Per tale motivo è nata l’idea della biblioteca multimediale. La novità è non solo nella creazione, ma anche nella possibilità di immediata consultazione ed accessibilità a tutti, anche ai “non addetti ai lavori”. Si può quindi, con estrema facilità, consultare l’ampia raccolta di documenti scientifici in ottica di genere che sono stati catalogati per argomenti ed apparati. La biblioteca multimediale è agli albori e, dato anche il crescente interesse della letteratura scientifica per tale argomento, necessita di una continua e costante implementazione, pertanto chiunque voglia contribuire alla crescita di questo archivio può inviaremateriale al seguente indirizzo: imma-ambrosino@libero.it

Aritmie e Fibrillazione atriale 

Samuel Chauveau, Olivier Le Vavasseur, Elodie Morel, Arnaud Dulac, Philippe Chevalier, Flecainide is a safe and effective treatment for pre-excited atrial fibrillation rapidly conducted to the ventricle in pregnant women: a case series, European Heart Journal - Case Reports, Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2019, ytz066, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytz066

Cecilia Linde, Maria Grazia Bongiorni, Ulrika Birgersdotter-Green, Anne B Curtis, Isabel Deisenhofer, Tetsushi Furokawa, Anne M Gillis, Kristina H Haugaa, Gregory Y H Lip, Isabelle Van Gelder, Marek Malik, Jeannie Poole, Tatjana Potpara, Irina Savelieva, Andrea Sarkozy, ESC Scientific Document Group, Sex differences in cardiac arrhythmia: a consensus document of the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society, EP Europace, Volume 20, Issue 10, October 2018, Pages 1565–1565ao, https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy067

A. Quesada Dorador, A. Prieto Martin, B. Quesada, B. Bochard, J. Jimenez, V. Palanca, B. Trejo, R. Paya, JL. Perez-Bosca, F. Arteaga, C. Albiach, F. Ridocci, C. Fernandez Diaz, J. Belchi, 185 Effect of gender on patient selection for cardiac resynchronisation therapy, EP Europace, Volume 19, Issue suppl_3, June 2017, Page iii19, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/eux137.004

AJ. Camm, P. Amarenco, S. Haas, M. Bach, P. Kirchhof, S. Kuhls, M. Lambelet, M. Van Eickels, A G G Turpie, P300
Impact of gender: rivaroxaban for patients with atrial fibrillation in the XANTUS real-world prospective study, EP Europace, Volume 19, Issue suppl_3, June 2017, Pages iii46–iii47, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/eux141.028

Jim W Cheung, Edward P Cheng, , Xian Wu, Ilhwan Yeo, Paul J Christos, Hooman Kamel, Steven M Markowitz, Christopher F Liu, George Thomas, James E Ip, Bruce B Lerman, Luke K Kim, Sex-based differences in outcomes, 30-day readmissions, and costs following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: the United States Nationwide Readmissions Database 2010–14, European Heart Journal, Volume 40, Issue 36, 21 September 2019, Pages 3035–3043, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz151

Tero Penttilä, Mika Lehto, Jussi Niiranen, Juha Mehtälä, Houssem Khanfir, Riitta Lassila, Pekka Raatikainen, Differences in the risk of stroke, bleeding events, and mortality between female and male patients with atrial fibrillation during warfarin therapy, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages 29–36, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvy026

Craig I Coleman, Alexander G G Turpie, Thomas J Bunz, Daniel Eriksson, Nitesh A Sood, William L Baker, Effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with a non-sex-related CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages 64–69, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvy025

Emdin Connor A, Wong Christopher X, Hsiao Allan J, Altman Douglas G, Peters Sanne AE, Woodward Mark et al. Atrial fibrillation as risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies BMJ 2016; 352 :h7013/ DOI:10.1136/bmj.h7013

Qinmei Xiong et al. Asymptomatic versus symptomatic atrial fibrillation: A systematic review of age/gender differences and cardiovascular outcomes.  International Journal of Cardiology, 2015; Volume 191, 172 - 177 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.011

Politi, C., Ciarambino, T., Riva, L., Frasson, S., Lucci, D., Gussoni, G., Gonzini, L., Campanini, M., Gulizia, M., Di Pasquale, G., Mathieu, G., & and Investigators, on behalf of A.-A. (2016). Sex-gender and atrial fibrillation treatment in the AntiThrombotic Agents in Atrial Fibrillation (ATA-AF) study. Italian Journal of Medicine, 10(3), 207-212.  https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2016.649

Gillis, A. M. Atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias: sex differences in electrophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical outcomes. Circulation 135, 593–608 (2017).DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.025312

Ko D, Rahman F, Schnabel RB, Yin X, Benjamin EJ, Christophersen IE. Atrial fibrillation in women: epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation, and prognosis.Nat Rev Cardiol. 2016; 13:321–332. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2016.45. DOI:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.45

Jim W Cheung, Edward P Cheng, Xian Wu, Ilhwan Yeo, Paul J Christos, Hooman Kamel, Steven M Markowitz, Christopher F Liu, George Thomas, James E Ip, Bruce B Lerman, Luke K Kim, Sex-based differences in outcomes, 30-day readmissions, and costs following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: the United States Nationwide Readmissions Database 2010–14, European Heart Journal, , ehz151, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz151

Dagres N NR, Vardas PE, Andresen D, Lévy S, Cobbe S, Kremastinos D, et al. Gender-related differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation in Europe: a report from the Euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation. Am J Coll Cardiol2007;49:572-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.10.047

Gregory Y.H. Lip, Cécile Laroche, Giuseppe Boriani, Paolo Cimaglia, Gheorghe-Andrei Dan, Massimo Santini, Zbigniew Kalarus, Lars Hvilsted Rasmussen, Mircea Ioachim Popescu, Otilia Tica, Camilla Fragtrup Hellum, Bettina Mortensen, Luigi Tavazzi, Aldo P. Maggioni, Sex-related differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation in Europe: a report from the Euro Observational Research Programme Pilot survey on Atrial Fibrillation, EP Europace, Volume 17, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages 24–31, https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euu155

Ikemura N, Kohsaka S, Kimura T, et al. Assessment of Sex Differences in the Initial Symptom Burden, Applied Treatment Strategy, and Quality of Life in Japanese Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA Netw Open. Published online March 29, 20192(3):e191145. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1145. DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1145

Humphries KH, Kerr CR, Connolly SJ, Klein G, Boone JA, Green M, Sheldon R, Talajic M, Dorian P, Newman D. New-onset atrial fibrillation: sex differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome. Circulation. 2001; 103: 2365–2370. DOI:10.1161/01.cir.103.19.2365

Piccini JP, Simon DN, Steinberg BA, et al. Differences in Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Atrial Fibrillation in Women and Men: Two-Year Results From the ORBIT-AF Registry. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1(3):282–291. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.0529. DOI:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.0529

Marzona, I., Proietti, M., Vannini, T. et al. Intern Emerg Med (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11739-019-02134-z

Pancholy SB, Sharma PS, Pancholy DS, Patel TM, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Meta‐analysis of gender differences in residual stroke risk and major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants. Am J Cardiol. 2014; 113:485–490 DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.10.035

Antonio Gonzalez-Hermosillo J., Banos-Gonzalez M.A., Guevara-Valdivia M.E., Vazquez-Acosta J.A., de Los Rios Ibarra M.O., Aguilar-Linares K.A., Cantu-Brito C., Leiva-Pons J.L., Pozas-Garza G., Favela-Perez EA., Marquez M.F. Gender differences and management of stroke risk of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in an upper middle-income country: Insights from the CARMEN-AF registry. Int. J. Cardiol. Heart Vasc. 2019;22:117–122. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcha.2018.12.017

 Tian XT, Xu YJ, Yang YQ. Gender Differences in Arrhythmias: Focused on Atrial Fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2019 Oct 21. doi:10.1007/s12265-019-09918-w. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31637585. DOI: 10.1007/s12265-019-09918-w

Infarto miocardico

Haider A et al. Sex and gender in cardiovascular medicine: presentation and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome. Eur Heart J. 2020 Apr 1;41(13):1328-1336. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz898

Romiti GF. Sex-specific cut-offs for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin: is less more?Cardiovasc Ther. 2019 Feb 5;Vol.2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9546931

Puja K Mehta, Courtney Bess, Suzette Elias-Smale, Viola Vaccarino, Arshed Quyyumi, Carl J Pepine, C Noel Bairey Merz, Gender in cardiovascular medicine: chest pain and coronary artery disease, European Heart Journal, ehz784. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz784

Alice M Jackson, Ruiqi Zhang, Iain Findlay, Keith Robertson, Mitchell Lindsay, Tamsin Morris, Brian Forbes, Richard Papworth, Alex McConnachie, Kenneth Mangion, Pardeep S Jhund, Colin McCowan, Colin Berry, Healthcare disparities for women hospitalized with myocardial infarction and angina, European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, , qcz040, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcz040

Seong-Mi Park, Janet Wei, Galen Cook-Wiens, Michael D Nelson, Louise Thomson, Daniel Berman, Eileen Handberg, John Petersen, David Anderson, Carl J Pepine, C Noel Bairey Merz, Left ventricular concentric remodelling and functional impairment in women with ischaemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease and intermediate coronary flow reserve: a report from the WISE-CVD study, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2019, Pages 875–882, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jez044

Kuan Ken Lee, Amy V. Ferry, Atul Anand, Fiona E. Strachan, Andrew R. Chapman, Dorien M. Kimenai, Steven J.R. Meex, Colin Berry, Iain Findlay, Alan Reid, Anne Cruickshank, Alasdair Gray, Paul O. Collinson, Fred S. Apple, David A. McAllister, Donogh Maguire, Keith A.A. Fox, David E. Newby, Chris Tuck, Catriona Keerie, Christopher J. Weir, Anoop S.V. Shah, Nicholas L. Mills, on behalf of the High-STEACS Investigators Sex-Specific Thresholds of High-Sensitivity Troponin in Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Oct, 74 (16) 2032-2043.DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2019.07.082

Mehta L.S., Beckie T.M., DeVon H.A., et al., American Heart Association Cardiovascular Disease in Women and Special Populations Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, and Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research (2016) Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Mar 1; 133(9): 916–947. DOI:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000351

Stephan Achenbach, Coronary calcium: ‘bad news’ for men, but even ‘worse news’ for women?, European Heart Journal, Volume 39, Issue 41, 01 November 2018, Pages 3736–3738, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy630

Wenger, N.K. (2018). Sauce for the Goose Versus Sauce for the Gander: Should Men and Women Play the Same Game But With Different Rules? Circulation, 137 8, 791-793 . DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033168

Lichtman JH, Leifheit EC, Safdar B, Bao H, Krumholz HM, Lorenze NP, et al. Sex differences in the presentation and perception of symptoms among young patients with myocardial infarction: evidence from the VIRGO study (variation in recovery: role of gender on outcomes of young AMI patients). Circulation. 2018;137(8):781–90. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.031650.

Ferry AV, Anand A, Strachan FE, Mooney L, Stewart SD, Marshall L, Chapman AR, Lee KK, Jones S, Orme K, Shah ASV, Mills NL. Presenting symptoms in men and women diagnosed with myocardial infarction using sex‐specific criteria. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019; 8:e012307. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.012307

Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2017 Mar 7;135(10 ):e646] [published correction appears in Circulation. 2017 Sep 5;136(10 ):e196]. Circulation. 2017;135(10):e146–e603. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485

D'Onofrio G, Safdar B, Lichtman JH, et al. Sex differences in reperfusion in young patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the VIRGO study. Circulation. 2015;131(15):1324–1332. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012293

Xu X, Bao H, Strait K, et al. Sex differences in perceived stress and early recovery in young and middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2015;131(7):614–623. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012826

Bucholz EM, Strait KM, Dreyer RP, et al. Effect of low perceived social support on health outcomes in young patients with acute myocardial infarction: results from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(5):e001252. Published 2014 Sep 30. doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.001252

Leifheit-Limson EC, D'Onofrio G, Daneshvar M, et al. Sex Differences in Cardiac Risk Factors, Perceived Risk, and Health Care Provider Discussion of Risk and Risk Modification Among Young Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: The VIRGO Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(18):1949–1957. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.859

Ferry AV, Anand A, Strachan FE, et al. Presenting Symptoms in Men and Women Diagnosed With Myocardial Infarction Using Sex-Specific Criteria. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(17):e012307. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.012307

Lichtman JH, Leifheit-Limson EC, Watanabe E, et al. Symptom recognition and healthcare experiences of young women with acute myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8(2 Suppl 1):S31–S38. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001612

Stehli J, Martin C, Brennan A, Dinh DT, Lefkovits J, Zaman S. Sex Differences Persist in Time to Presentation, Revascularization, and Mortality in Myocardial Infarction Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(10):e012161. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.012161 

Graham G. Acute Coronary Syndromes in Women: Recent Treatment Trends and Outcomes. Clin Med Insights Cardiol. 2016;10:1–10. Published 2016 Feb 8. doi:10.4137/CMC.S37145

Park SM, Merz CN. Women and Ischemic Heart Disease: Recognition, Diagnosis and Management. Korean Circ J. 2016;46(4):433–442. doi:10.4070/kcj.2016.46.4.433

Christine Pacheco, Janet Wei, Margo Minissian, Chrisandra L Shufelt, Sarah J Kilpatrick, Odayme Quesada, C Noel Bairey Merz, Cardiovascular and pregnancy outcomes in women with coronary microvascular dysfunction: a case series, European Heart Journal - Case Reports, Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2019, ytz071, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytz071 

 Puglisi R, Mattia G, Carè A, Marano G, Malorni W, Matarrese P. Non-genomic Effects of Estrogen on Cell Homeostasis and Remodeling With Special Focus on Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Front. Endocrinol., 25 October 2019 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00733

Sex-Related Differences in Heart Failure After ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Edina Cenko, Mihaela van der Schaar, Jinsung Yoon, Olivia Manfrini, Zorana Vasiljevic, Marija Vavlukis, Sasko Kedev, Davor Miličić, Lina Badimon, Raffaele Bugiardini J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Nov, 74 (19) 2379-2389. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.08.1047
 
The Feminine Mystique in Myocardial Infarction Associated Mortality Joan Briller J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Nov, 74 (19) 2390-2391. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.09.013
Scompenso cardiaco
Motiejūnaitė J. The association of long-term outcome and biological sex in patients with acute heart failure from different geographic regions. Eur Heart J. 2020 Apr 1;41(13):1357-1364. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa071

Bots SH et al. Adverse Drug Reactions to Guideline-Recommended Heart Failure Drugs in Women  A Systematic Review of the Literature JACC HF VOL. 7, NO. 3, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2019.01.009

 

Sophie H.Bots et al. Adverse Drug Reactions to Guideline-Recommended Heart Failure Drugs in Women  A Systematic Review of the Literature JACC HF VOL. 7, NO. 3, 2019. http://heartfailure.onlinejacc.org/content/7/3/258

Miranda Merrill, Nancy Sweitzer, JoAnn Lindenfeld, David P Kao. Sex differences in outcomes and response to spironolactone in HFpEF: a secondary analysis of TOPCAT. JACC Heart Fail. 2019 Mar; 7(3): 228–238. DOI:10.1016/j.jchf.2019.01.003

Santema BT et al. Identifying optimal doses of heart failure medications in men compared with women: a prospective, observational, cohort study. Lancet. 2019 Oct 5;394(10205):1254-1263. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31792-1

Hassanein M, Abdelhamid M, Ibrahim B, Sobhy M, Nasr G, Aboleineen MW et al (2018) Gender differences in Egyptian patients hospitalized with heart failure: insights from the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. ESC Heart Fail  2018 Dec;5(6):1159-1164. DOI:10.1002/ehf2.12347

AlBadri A, Lai K, Wei J, et al. Inflammatory biomarkers as predictors of heart failure in women without obstructive coronary artery disease: A report from the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0177684. Published 2017 May 19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177684

Bozkurt B, Khalaf S. Heart Failure in Women. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2017;13(4):216–223. doi:10.14797/mdcj-13-4-216

Bouthoorn S, Valstar GB, Gohar A, et al. The prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in men and women with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018;15:477–93. 10.1177/147916411878741

Bouthoorn S, Gohar A, Valstar G, et al. Prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2018;17:58 10.1186/s12933-018-0690-3

Scantlebury DC, Borlaug BA, a BB. Why are women more likely than men to develop heart failure with preserved ejection fraction? Curr Opin Cardiol 2011;26:562–8. 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32834b7faf

Eikendal ALM, Gohar A, Rutten FH, et al. Sex-Specific relations of cardiovascular risk factors with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction/heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are underreported: a call for action. J Card Fail 2018. 24:412–4. 10.1016/j.cardfail.2018.03.001

Sharma K, Al Rifai M, Ahmed HM, et al. Usefulness of coronary artery calcium to predict heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in men versus women (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Am J Cardiol 2017;120:1847–53. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.07.089

Toma M, Mak GJ, Chen V, et al. Differentiating heart failure phenotypes using sex-specific transcriptomic and proteomic biomarker panels. ESC Heart Fail 2017;4:301–11. 10.1002/ehf2.12136

Bakir M, Nelson MD, Jones E, et al. Heart failure hospitalization in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia: a report from the women’s ischemia syndrome evaluation study. Int J Cardiol 2016;223:936–9. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.301

De Bellis, A., De Angelis, G., Fabris, E. et al. Heart Fail Rev (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10741-019-09824-y

M.R. Shah, C.B. Granger, B.A. Bart, et al. Sex-related differences in the use and adverse effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure: the study of patients intolerant of converting enzyme inhibitors registry Am J Med, 109 (2000), pp. 489-492. DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00529-5
 
T. Simon, M. Mary-Krause, C. Funck-Brentano, P. Jaillon. Sex differences in the prognosis of congestive heart failure results from the Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study (CIBIS II)Circulation, 103 (2001), pp. 375-380. DOI: 10.1161/01.cir.103.3.375
 
 
 
F. Gustafsson, C. Torp-Pedersen, H. Burchardt, et al.Female sex is associated with a better long-term survival in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure Eur Heart J, 25 (2004), pp. 129-135. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi022
 
S.K. Majahalme, L. Baruch, N. Aknay, et al.Comparison of treatment benefit and outcome in women versus men with chronic heart failure (from the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial) Am J Cardiol, 95 (2005), pp. 529-532
 
E. O’Meara, T. Clayton, M.B. McEntegart, et al.Sex differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure: results of the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program
Circulation, 115 (2007), pp. 3111-3120 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.673442
 
A.M. Russo, J.E. Poole, D.B. Mark, et al.Primary prevention with defibrillator therapy in women: Results from the sudden cardiac death in heart failure trial J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, 19 (2008), pp. 720-724 DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01129.x
 
S.S. Rathore, J.M. Foody, Y. Wang, et al.Sex, quality of care, and outcomes of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure: findings from the National Heart Failure Project Am Heart J, 149 (2005), pp. 121-128. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.06.008
 
R. Sheppard, H. Behlouli, H. Richard, L. PiloteEffect of gender on treatment, resource utilization, and outcomes in congestive heart failure in Quebec, Canada Am J Cardiol, 95 (2005), pp. 955-959 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.06.008
 
M.J. Lenzen, A. Rosengren, W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer, et al.Management of patients with heart failure in clinical practice: differences between men and women Heart, 94 (2008), p. e10. DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2006.099523
 
C.W. Yancy, G.C. Fonarow, N.M. Albert, et al.Influence of patient age and sex on delivery of guideline-recommended heart failure care in the outpatient cardiology practice setting: Findings from IMPROVE HF Am Heart J, 157 (2009), pp. 754-762.e2 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.12.016
 
C. Linde, M. Ståhlberg, L. Benson, et al.Gender, underutilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy, and prognostic impact of QRS prolongation and left bundle branch block in heart failure Europace, 17 (2015), pp. 424-431. DOI: 10.1093/europace/euu205
 
S.S. Rathore, Y. Wang, H.M. KrumholzSex-based differences in the effect of digoxin for the treatment of heart failure N Engl J Med, 347 (2002), pp. 1403-1411 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa021266
 
Dewan P, Rørth R, Jhund PS, Shen L, Raparelli V, Petrie MC, Abraham WT, Desai AS, Dickstein K, Køber L, Mogensen UM, Packer M, Rouleau JL, Solomon SD, Swedberg K, Zile MR, McMurray JJV (2019) Differential impact of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction on men and women. J Am Coll Cardiol 73:29–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.09.081
  
WALSH MN, Jessup M, Lindenfeld J. Women With Heart Failure: Unheard, Untreated, and Unstudied. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:41-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.041

Tromboembolismo

Christof T. Kaltenmeier, Young Erben, Jeffrey Indes, Alfred Lee, Alan Dardik, Timur Sarac, Cassius Iyad Ochoa Chaar. Systematic review of May-Thurner syndrome with emphasis on gender differences.J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2017 Dec 28 Published online 2017 Dec 28. DOI:10.1016/j.jvsv.2017.11.006

Vicky Tagalakis. Sex may matter when it comes to the presenting location of deep vein thrombosis.Thromb Res. 2018 Dec 6 Published online 2018 Dec 6. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2018.12.001

Angeles Blanco-Molina, Javier Trujillo-Santos, Raimundo Tirado, Inmaculada Cañas, Antoni Riera, Mariano Valdés, Manuel Monreal, RIETE Investigators. Venous thromboembolism in women using hormonal contraceptives. Findings from the RIETE Registry.Thromb Haemost. 2009 Mar; 101(3): 478–482.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19277408

Altro

Lüscher TF. Sex and gender and cardiovascular medicine: impact in diabetes, acute coronary syndromes, and heart failure. European Heart Journal (2020) 41, 1311–1314. https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article/41/13/1311/5814227 

Marieke T Blom, Iris Oving, Jocelyn Berdowski, Irene G M van Valkengoed, Abdenasser Bardai, Hanno L Tan, Women have lower chances than men to be resuscitated and survive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, European Heart Journal, , ehz297, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz297

Karin A L Mueller, David B Hanna, Erik Ehinger, Xiaonan Xue, Livia Baas, Meinrad P Gawaz, Tobias Geisler, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge H Cohen, Stephen J Gange, Sonya L Heath, Jason M Lazar, Chenglong Liu, Wendy J Mack, Igho Ofotokun, Phyllis C Tien, Howard N Hodis, Alan L Landay, Robert C Kaplan, Klaus Ley, Loss of CXCR4 on non-classical monocytes in participants of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with subclinical atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 115, Issue 6, 01 May 2019, Pages 1029–1040, https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy292

Ian D van Koeverden, Marie de Bakker, Saskia Haitjema, Sander W van der Laan, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Imo E Hoefer, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp, Hester M den Ruijter, Testosterone to oestradiol ratio reflects systemic and plaque inflammation and predicts future cardiovascular events in men with severe atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 115, Issue 2, 01 February 2019, Pages 453–462, https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy188

 Michael Fiechter, Andrea Roggo, Irene A Burger, Susan Bengs, Valerie Treyer, Anton Becker, Monika Marȩdziak, Ahmed Haider, Angela Portmann, Michael Messerli, Dimitri Patriki, Urs J Mühlematter, Elia von Felten, Dominik C Benz, Tobias A Fuchs, Christoph Gräni, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann, Catherine Gebhard, Association between resting amygdalar activity and abnormal cardiac function in women and men: a retrospective cohort study, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, Volume 20, Issue 6, June 2019, Pages 625–632, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jez047

 J Tamargo, G Rosano, T Walther, J Duarte, A Niessner, JC Kaski, C Ceconi, H Drexel, K Kjeldsen, G Savarese, C Torp-Pedersen, D Atar, BS Lewis, S Agewall, Gender differences in the effects of cardiovascular drugs, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2017, Pages 163–182, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvw042

Takeo Onose, Yasuhiko Sakata, Kotaro Nochioka, Masanobu Miura, Takeshi Yamauchi, Kanako Tsuji, Ruri Abe, Takuya Oikawa, Shintaro Kasahara, Masayuki Sato, Takashi Shiroto, Satoshi Miyata, Jun Takahashi, Hiroaki Shimokawa, on behalf of the CHART-2 Investigators, Sex differences in post-traumatic stress disorder in cardiovascular patients after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a report from the CHART-2 Study, European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2017, Pages 224–233, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcx009

Gerdts, E., Regitz-Zagrosek, V. Sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders. Nat Med 25, 1657–1666 (2019). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-019-0643-8

Shoemaker R, Tannock LR, Su W, et al. Adipocyte deficiency of ACE2 increases systolic blood pressures of obese female C57BL/6 mice. Biol Sex Differ. 2019;10(1):45. Published 2019 Sep 4. doi: 10.1186/s13293-019-0260-8

Ghadri JR et al. International Expert Consensus Document on Takotsubo Syndrome (Part II): Diagnostic Workup, Outcome, and Management  Eur Heart J 2018, 39, 2047–2062 DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy077

 

Yusuf S et al. Cardiovascular Risk and Events in 17 Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries N Engl I Med 2014, N Engl J Med 2014;371:818-27. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1311890

 

Mogil JS2012Sex differences in pain and pain inhibition: multiple explanations of a controversial phenomenonNat Rev Neurosci 13859– 866DOI:10.1038/nrn3360

Traub RJJi Y2013Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue painFront Neuroendocrinol 34350– 366. DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2013.07.002

Vacca VMarinelli SPieroni LUrbani ALuvisetto SPavone F201617β‐Estradiol counteracts neuropathic pain: a behavioural, immunohistochemical, and proteomic investigation on sex‐related differences in miceSci Rep 618980https://www.nature.com/articles/srep18980

 

Diabete

Lüscher TF. Sex and gender and cardiovascular medicine: impact in diabetes, acute coronary syndromes, and heart failure. European Heart Journal (2020) 41, 1311–1314. https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article/41/13/1311/5814227 

Malmborg  M. Does type 2 diabetes confer higher relative rates of cardiovascular events in women compared with men? Eur Heart J. 2020 Apr 1;41(13):1346-1353. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz913

Sattar N. Type 2 diabetes-related sex differences in cardiovascular riskreasonsramifications, and clinical realities. Eur Heart J. 2020 Apr 1;41(13):1354-1356. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz914

Ritter R. Sex differences in the risk of vascular disease associated with diabetes. Biol Sex Differ. 2020; 11: 1. doi: 10.1186/s13293-019-0277-z

Crump C. Preterm birth and risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a national cohort study. Diabetologia. 2020 Mar;63(3):508-518. DOI:10.1007/s00125-019-05044-z

Peters, S.A.E. & Woodward, M. Sex Differences in the Burden and Complications of Diabetes. Curr Diab Rep (2018) 18: 33.  DOI:10.1007/s11892-018-1005-5

Nadal-Casellas, A., Proenza, A. M., Llado, I. & Gianotti, M. Sex-dependent differences in rat hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in response to diet-induced obesity. Biochem. Cell Biol. 90, 164–172 (2012) DOI:10.1139/o11-069

Geer, E. B. & Shen, W. Gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Gend Med. 6, 60–75 (2009). DOI:10.1016/j.genm.2009.02.002

Hoeg, L. D. et al. Lipid-induced insulin resistance affects women less than men and is not accompanied by inflammation or impaired proximal insulin signaling. Diabetes 60, 64–73 (2010). DOI: 10.2337/db10-0698

Logue, J. et al. Do men develop type 2 diabetes at lower body mass indices than women? Diabetologia 54, 3003–3006 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2313-3

Kautzky-Willer, A., Harreiter, J. & Pacini, G. Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr. Rev. 37, 278–316 (2016). DOI:10.1210/er.2015-1137

Macotela, Y., Boucher, J., Tran, T. T. & Kahn, C. R. Sex and depot differences in adipocyte insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Diabetes 58, 803–812 (2009). DOI:10.2337/db08-1054

Wang, Y., O’Neil, A., Jiao, Y. et al. Sex differences in the association between diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 5,162,654 participants. BMC Med (2019) 17: 136. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12916-019-1355-0

Escolar-Pujolar, A. et al. The effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in diabetes mortality in Andalusia. Endocrinol. Diabetes Nutr. 65, 21–29 (2018). DOI:10.1016/j.endinu.2017.10.006

Russo GT, Giandalia A, Romeo EL, Nunziata M, Muscianisi M, Ruffo MC, Catalano A, Cucinotta D. Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes: current perspectives and gender differences. Int J Endocrinol. 2016;2016:1615735. DOI:10.1155/2016/1615735

Oikonomou E, Tsigkou V, Lazaros G, et al. The interaction between gender and diabetes mellitus in the coronary heart disease risk. Curr Pharm Des 2016;6:6. DOI:10.2174/1381612822666160606202111

F. Mauvais-Jarvis Gender differences in glucose homeostasis and diabetes Physiol. Behav. (2017) S0031-9384(17)30262-7. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.08.016

Sattar N. Gender aspects in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2013) 27:501–7. DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2013.05.006

 Harreiter J, Kautzky-Willer A. Sex and gender differences in prevention of type 2 diabetes. Front Endocrinol. (2018) 9:220. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2018.00220

Gregg EW, Gu Q, Cheng YJ, Narayan KM, Cowie CC. Mortality trends in men and women with diabetes, 1971 to 2000. Ann Intern Med. (2007) 147:149–55. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-147-3-200708070-00167

Mascarenhas-Melo F, Marado D, Palavra F, Sereno J, Coelho Á, Pinto R, et al. Diabetes abrogates sex differences and aggravates cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women. Cardiovasc Diabetol. (2013) 12:61. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-61

 Steinberg HO, Paradisi G, Cronin J, Crowde K, Hempfling A, Hook G, et al. Type II diabetes abrogates sex differences in endothelial function in premenopausal women. Circulation (2000) 101:2040–6.https://ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.cir.101.17.2040

Peterson LR, Saeed IM, McGill JB, Herrero P, Schechtman KB, Gunawardena R, et al. Sex and type 2 diabetes: obesity-independent effects on left ventricular substrate metabolism and relaxation in humans. Obesity (2012) 20:802–10. DOI:10.1038/oby.2011.208

Lyons MR, Peterson LR, McGill JB, Herrero P, Coggan AR, Saeed IM, et al. Impact of sex on the heart's metabolic and functional responses to diabetic therapies. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. (2013) 305:H1584–91. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00420.2013

Kautzky-Willer A, Harreiter J. Sex and gender differences in therapy of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract (2017) 131:230–41. DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.012

Glechner A, Harreiter J, Gartlehner G, Rohleder S, Kautzky A, Tuomilehto J, et al. Sex-specific differences in diabetes prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia (2015) 58(2):242–54. DOI:10.1007/s00125-014-3439-x

Yang W, Lu J, Weng J, Jia W, Ji L, Xiao J, et al. Prevalence of diabetes among men and women in China. N Engl J Med. (2010) 362:1090–101. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0908292

Arnetz L, Ekberg NR, Alvarsson M. Sex differences in type 2 diabetes: focus on disease course and outcomes. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. (2014) 7:409–20. DOI:10.2147/DMSO.S51301

Perreault L, Ma Y, Dagogo-Jack S, Horton E, Marrero D, Crandall J, et al. Sex differences in diabetes risk and the effect of intensive lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care (2008) 31(7):1416–21.  DOI:10.2337/dc07-2390

Raparelli V, Proietti M, Romiti GF, Lenzi A, Basili S; EVA Collaborative Group. The Sex-Specific Detrimental Effect of Diabetes and Gender-Related Factors on Pre-admission Medication Adherence Among Patients Hospitalized for Ischemic Heart Disease: Insights From EVA Study. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:107. Published 2019 Feb 25. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00107 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00107

Huebschmann AG, Huxley RR, Kohrt WM, Zeitler P, Regensteiner JG, Reusch JEB.Sex differences in the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk across the life course. Diabetologia. 2019 Oct;62(10):1761-1772. DOI:10.1007/s00125-019-4939-5

Al-Salameh A, Chanson P, Bucher S, Ringa V, Becquemont L.Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Sex-Related Differences in Predisposition and Prevention Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Feb; 94(2):287-308. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.08.007

Rossi MCCristofaro MRGentile SLucisano GManicardi VMulas MFNapoli ANicolucci APellegrini FSuraci CGiorda CAMD Annals Study Group. Sex disparities in the quality of diabetes care: biological and cultural factors may play a different role for different outcomes: a cross-sectional observational study from the AMD Annals initiative. Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct;36(10):3162-8. DOI:10.2337/dc13-0184

 Manicardi V, Russo G, Napoli A, Torlone E, Li Volsi P, Giorda CB, Musacchio N, Nicolucci A, Suraci C, Lucisano G, et al. Gender-Disparities in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: More Than a Quality of Care Issue. A Cross-Sectional Observational Study from the AMD Annals Initiative. PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0162960. Epub 2016 Oct 3. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162960

Russo GPintaudi BGiorda CLucisano GNicolucci ACristofaro MRSuraci CMulas MFNapoli ARossi MCManicardi VAge- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:957105. DOI:10.1155/2015/957105

Manicardi V, Rossi MC, Romeo EL. Et al. Gender differences in type 2 diabetes (Italy). Ital J Gender-Specific Med 2016; 2(2): 60-68. DOI 10.1723/2446.25646

V. Manicardi, G. Russo, M.C. Rossi (2019) Donne, diabete e rischio cardiovascolare. JAMD Vol. 21-4. http://www.jamd.it/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/AMD-supplemento-x-stampa.pdf

Metabolismo

Kanter R, Caballero B. Global gender disparities in obesity: a review. Adv Nutr (2012) 3(4):491–8. DOI:10.3945/an.112.002063

Lovejoy JC, Sainsbury A; Stock Conference 2008 Working Group. Sex differences in obesity and the regulation of energy  homeostasis. Obes Rev (2009) 10(2):154–67. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00529.x

Kautzky-Willer A, Handisurya A. Metabolic diseases and associated complications: sex and gender matter! Eur J Clin Invest (2009) 39(8):631–48. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02161.x

Ciampolillo, A. (2019). Metabolic syndrome and gut microbiota: there is a gender difference? Ital J Gender-Specific Med 2019; 5(1):21-26. DOI 10.1723/3148.31295 

Link JC, Reue K. Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 2017;37:225–245. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064827 DOI:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064827

Chang E, Varghese M, Singer K. Gender and Sex Differences in Adipose Tissue. Curr Diab Rep. 2018;18(9):69. Published 2018 Jul 30. doi:10.1007/s11892-018-1031-3

Valencak TG, Osterrieder A, Schulz TJ. Sex matters: The effects of biological sex on adipose tissue biology and energy metabolism. Redox Biol. 2017;12:806–813. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2017.04.012

White UA, Tchoukalova YD. Sex dimorphism and depot differences in adipose tissue function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842(3):377–392. 

Link JC, Hasin-Brumshtein Y, Cantor RM, et al. Diet, gonadal sex, and sex chromosome complement influence white adipose tissue miRNA expression. BMC Genomics. 2017;18(1):89. Published 2017 Jan 17. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.05.006

Xu YXZ, Ande SR, Mishra S. Gonadectomy in Mito-Ob mice revealed a sex-dimorphic relationship between prohibitin and sex steroids in adipose tissue biology and glucose homeostasis. Biol Sex Differ. 2018;9(1):37. DOI:10.1186/s13293-018-0196-4

 Tao Z, Zheng LD, Smith C, et al. Estradiol signaling mediates gender difference in visceral adiposity via autophagy. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9(3):309. DOI:10.1038/s41419-018-0372-9

Recettori per estrogeni

Fuentes N, Silveyra P. Estrogen receptor signaling mechanisms. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2019;116:135–170. DOI:10.1016/bs.apcsb.2019.01.001

 Vona, R., Gambardella, L., Ortona, E., Santulli, M., Malorni, W., Carè, A., Pietraforte, D., & Straface, E. (2019). Functional Estrogen Receptors of Red Blood Cells. Do They Influence Intracellular Signaling?  Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, 53 1 , 186-199. DOI:10.33594/000000129 

 Subhashis Banerjee, Ken L. Chambliss, Chieko Mineo, Philip W. Shaul. Recent insights into non-nuclear actions of estrogen receptor alpha. Steroids. 2014 Mar; 81: 64–69.  DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2013.11.002

Mahmoodzadeh S, Dworatzek E. The Role of 17β-Estradiol and Estrogen Receptors in Regulation of Ca2+ Channels and Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:310.  doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00310

 

J Tamargo, G Rosano, T Walther, J Duarte, A Niessner, JC Kaski, C Ceconi, H Drexel, K Kjeldsen, G Savarese, C Torp-Pedersen, D Atar, BS Lewis, S Agewall, Gender differences in the effects of cardiovascular drugs, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2017, Pages 163–182, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvw042

Gender Differences in the Pharmacological Actions of Pegylated Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Angiogenic Precursor Cells in a Combination of Metabolic Disorders and Lung Emphysema.Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 30;20(21). pii: E5414. DOI:10.3390/ijms20215414

Meiners B. Clinical and preclinical evidence of sex-related differences in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.Biol Sex Differ. 2018 Aug 29;9(1):38.DOI:10.1186/s13293-018-0198-2

Cadeddu Dessalvi, C., Pepe, A., Penna, C. et al. Sex differences in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity: the benefits of estrogens. Heart Fail Rev 24, 915–925 (2019). DOI:10.1007/s10741-019-09820-2

Santalucia P. Gender difference in drug use in hospitalized elderly patients. Eur J Intern Med. 2015 Sep;26(7):483-90. DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2015.07.006

Bitto A. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice. Elife. 2016 Aug 23;5. DOI:10.7554/eLife.16351

Pace S et al. Androgen-mediated sex bias impairs efficiency of leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors in males. J Clin Invest 2017 Aug 1;127(8):3167-3176.  doi: 10.1172/JCI92885. Epub 2017 Jul 24. DOI:10.1172/JCI92885

Fitofarmaci

Campesi, Romani, Franconi. The Sex-Gender Effects in the Road to Tailored Botanicals.  Nutrients. 2019 Jul 17;11(7). DOI: 10.3390/nu11071637

Greco EA, Lenzi A, Migliaccio S, Gessani S. Epigenetic Modifications Induced by Nutrients in Early Life Phases: Gender Differences in Metabolic Alteration in Adulthood. Front Genet. 2019 Sep 11;10:795. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2019.00795

 Pace S, Pergola C, Dehm F, et al. Androgen-mediated sex bias impairs efficiency of leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors in males. J Clin Invest. 2017;127(8):3167–3176. DOI:10.1172/JCI92885

 

Regitz-Zagrosek V. Sex and gender differences in health. Science & Society Series on Sex and Science. EMBO Rep. 2012 Jun 29;13(7):596-603. DOI:10.1038/embor.2012.87.

 

Della Torre S. Sex Differences: A Resultant of an Evolutionary Pressure? - Cell Metab. 2017 Mar 7;25(3):499-505. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.01.006

 

Okyar, A., Kumar, S.A., Filipski, E. et al. Sex-, feeding-, and circadian time-dependency of P-glycoprotein expression and activity - implications for mechanistic pharmacokinetics modeling. Sci Rep 9, 10505 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46977-0

Lee C, Kim J, Jung Y. Potential Therapeutic Application of Estrogen in Gender Disparity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Cells. 2019 Oct 15;8(10). doi: 10.3390/cells8101259

 

 

Autoimmunità

Laganà B, Zullo A, Scribano ML, et al. Sex Differences in Response to TNF-Inhibiting Drugs in Patients With Spondyloarthropathies or Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:47. Published 2019 Jan 28. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00047

González DA, Díaz BB, Rodríguez Pérez Mdel C, Hernández AG, Chico BN, de León AC. Sex hormones and autoimmunity. Immunol Lett. 2010;133(1):6–13. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2010.07.001

Avila M, Bansal A, Culberson J, Peiris AN. The Role of Sex Hormones in Multiple Sclerosis. Eur Neurol. 2018;80(1-2):93–99. doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000494262

Tiniakou E, Costenbader KH, Kriegel MA. Sex-specific environmental influences on the development of autoimmune diseases. Clin Immunol. 2013;149(2):182–191. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2013.02.011

Tedeschi SK, Bermas B, Costenbader KH. Sexual disparities in the incidence and course of SLE and RA. Clin Immunol. 2013;149(2):211–218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2013.03.003

Dupuis ML, Conti F, Maselli A, et al. The Natural Agonist of Estrogen Receptor β Silibinin Plays an Immunosuppressive Role Representing a Potential Therapeutic Tool in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1903. Published 2018 Aug 17. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01903

Immunità anti-infettiva

Jones BG et al. From influenza virus infections to lupus: synchronous estrogen receptor α and RNA polymerase II binding within the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Viral Immunol. 2020 Feb 27. DOI:10.1089/vim.2019.0144

Ingersoll MA. Sex differences shape the response to infectious diseases. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(12):e1006688. Published 2017 Dec 28. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006688

 Vom Steeg LG, Flores-Garcia Y, Zavala F, Klein SL. Irradiated sporozoite vaccination induces sex-specific immune responses and protection against malaria in mice. Vaccine. 2019;37(32):4468–4476. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.075

Muenchhoff M, Goulder PJ. Sex differences in pediatric infectious diseases. J Infect Dis. 2014;209 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S120–S126. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu232

Ghosh S, Klein RS. Sex Drives Dimorphic Immune Responses to Viral Infections. J Immunol. 2017;198(5):1782–1790. doi: https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1601166

Ruggieri A, Gagliardi MC, Anticoli S. Sex-Dependent Outcome of Hepatitis B and C Viruses Infections: Synergy of Sex Hormones and Immune Responses?. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2302. Published 2018 Oct 8. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02302

Sistema immunitario

 

Elderman M, Hugenholtz F, Belzer C, et al. Sex and strain dependent differences in mucosal immunology and microbiota composition in mice. Biol Sex Differ. 2018;9(1):26. Published 2018 Jun 18. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0186-6

Ortona E, Pierdominici M, Rider V. Editorial: Sex Hormones and Gender Differences in Immune Responses. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1076. Published 2019 May 9. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01076

Bernin H, Fehling H, Marggraff C, Tannich E, Lotter H. The cytokine profile of human NKT cells and PBMCs is dependent on donor sex and stimulus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2016;205(4):321–332. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00430-016-0449-y

Jaillon S, Berthenet K, Garlanda C. Sexual Dimorphism in Innate Immunity. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019;56(3):308–321. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-017-8648-x

Gal-Oz ST, Maier B, Yoshida H, et al. ImmGen report: sexual dimorphism in the immune system transcriptome. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):4295. Published 2019 Sep 20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12348-6

Libert C, Dejager L, Pinheiro I. The X chromosome in immune functions: when a chromosome makes the difference. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10(8):594–604. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2815

 Pinheiro I, Dejager L, Libert C. X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: might they explain male/female differences? The X chromosome-genomic context may affect X-located miRNAs and downstream signaling, thereby contributing to the enhanced immune response of females. Bioessays. 2011;33(11):791–802. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100047

Klein SL, Flanagan KL. Sex differences in immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016;16(10):626–638. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2016.90

Vaccini

Flanagan KL, Fink AL, Plebanski M, Klein SL. Sex and Gender Differences in the Outcomes of Vaccination over the Life Course. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2017;33:577–599. doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100616-060718

 Hoes J, Knol MJ, Mollema L, Buisman A, de Melker HE, van der Klis FRM. Comparison of antibody response between boys and girls after infant and childhood vaccinations in the Netherlands. Vaccine. 2019;37(32):4504–4510. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.055

Baynam G, Zhang G, Khoo SK, et al. Gender-specific effects of cytokine gene polymorphisms on childhood vaccine responses. Vaccine. 2008;26(29-30):3574–3579. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.011

Potluri T, Fink AL, Sylvia KE, et al. Age-associated changes in the impact of sex steroids on influenza vaccine responses in males and females [published correction appears in NPJ Vaccines. 2019 Aug 12;4:35]. NPJ Vaccines. 2019;4:29. Published 2019 Jul 12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-019-0124-6

Fischinger S, Boudreau CM, Butler AL, Streeck H, Alter G. Sex differences in vaccine-induced humoral immunity. Semin Immunopathol. 2019;41(2):239–249. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0726-5

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Fink AL, Engle K, Ursin RL, Tang WY, Klein SL. Biological sex affects vaccine efficacy and protection against influenza in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(49):12477–12482. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1805268115

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Celestino I, Checconi P, Amatore D, et al. Differential Redox State Contributes to Sex Disparities in the Response to Influenza Virus Infection in Male and Female Mice. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1747. Published 2018 Jul 30. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01747

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Chylińska J, Lazarewicz M, Rzadkiewicz M, Adamus M, Jaworski M, Haugan G, et al. The role of gender in the active attitude toward treatment and health among older patients in primary health care-self-assessed health status and sociodemographic factors as moderators. BMC Geriatr. 2017; 17: 284. DOI:10.1186/s12877-017-0677-z

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Nguyen L, Castro O, De Dios R, Sandoval J, McKenna S, Wright CJ. Sex-differences in LPS-induced neonatal lung injury. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):8514. Published 2019 Jun 11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44955-0

Asma

Baldaçara RP, Silva I. Association between asthma and female sex hormones. Sao Paulo Med J. 2017;135(1):4–14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2016.011827016

Koper I, Hufnagl K, Ehmann R. Gender aspects and influence of hormones on bronchial asthma - Secondary publication and update. World Allergy Organ J. 2017;10(1):46. Published 2017 Dec 27. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40413-017-0177-9

Fuseini H, Newcomb DC. Mechanisms Driving Gender Differences in Asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017;17(3):19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11882-017-0686-1

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Barbagelata E, Cilloniz C, Nicolini A, Moretti AM.Sex differences in asthma and immunological response: an overview. Ital J Gender-Specific Med. 2019; 5(2): 68-73. doi: https://doi.org/10.1723/3188.31665

Ambhore, N. S., Kalidhindi, R. S. R., Pabelick, C. M., Hawse, J. R., Prakash, Y. S., Sathish, V. Differential estrogen-receptor activation regulates extracellular matrix deposition in human airway smooth muscle remodeling via NF-κB pathway. FASEB J. 2019 Oct 22:fj201901340R. doi: https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901340R

BPCO

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Aryal S, Diaz-Guzman E, Mannino DM. Influence of sex on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and treatment outcomes. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:1145–1154. Published 2014 Oct 14. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S54476

 Giannico OV, Ambrosino I, Patano F, Germinario C, Quarto M, Moretti AM. Educational level, marital status and sex as social gender discharge determinants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a time-to-event analysis. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2019;89(2):10.4081/monaldi.2019.1017. Published 2019 May 24. doi: https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2019.1017

Kilic H, Kokturk N, Sari G, Cakır M. Do females behave differently in COPD exacerbation?. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:823–830. Published 2015 Apr 24. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S78952

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Ambrosino I, Gallone MS, Patano F, Giannico OV, Barbagelata E, Gnerre P, Politi C, Fontanella A, Germinario CA, Moretti AM. Gender differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of hospitalization indicators. ITJM. 2019;13(1):38-4. doi: https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2019.1099 

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Celli B, Vestbo J, Jenkins CR, et al. Sex differences in mortality and clinical expressions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The TORCH experience. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(3):317–322. doi: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201004-0665OC

Tam A, Bates JH, Churg A, Wright JL, Man SF, Sin DD. Sex-Related Differences in Pulmonary Function following 6 Months of Cigarette Exposure: Implications for Sexual Dimorphism in Mild COPD. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164835. Published 2016 Oct 27. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164835

Robles PG, Brooks D, Goldstein R, Salbach N, Mathur S. Gender-associated differences in pulmonary rehabilitation outcomes in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2014;34(2):87–97. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0000000000000018

Barbagelata E, Nicolini A, Ambrosino I, Politi C. Gender differences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an update on the literature. ITJM. 2018;12(3):171-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2018.987 

Dransfield MT, Washko GR, Foreman MG, Estepar RS, Reilly J, Bailey WC. Gender differences in the severity of CT emphysema in COPD. Chest. 2007;132(2):464–470. doi: https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.07-0863

Barnes PJ. Sex Differences in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mechanisms. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;193(8):813–814. doi: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201512-2379ED

Gonzalez AV, Suissa S, Ernst P. Gender differences in survival following hospitalisation for COPD. Thorax. 2011;66(1):38–42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2010.141978

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Yang, C.X., Shi, H., Ding, I. et al. Widespread Sexual Dimorphism in the Transcriptome of Human Airway Epithelium in Response to Smoking. Sci Rep 9, 17600 (2019).https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-54051-y

Embolia 

Agarwal S, Clark D 3rd, Sud K, Jaber WA, Cho L, Menon V. Gender Disparities in Outcomes and Resource Utilization for Acute Pulmonary Embolism Hospitalizations in the United States. Am J Cardiol. 2015;116(8):1270–1276. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.07.048

Enfisema

Martinez FJ, Curtis JL, Sciurba F, et al. Sex differences in severe pulmonary emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176(3):243–252. doi: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200606-828OC

Nguyen L, Castro O, De Dios R, Sandoval J, McKenna S, Wright CJ. Sex-differences in LPS-induced neonatal lung injury. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):8514. DOI:10.1038/s41598-019-44955-0

Maxeiner S, Sester M, Krasteva-Christ G. Novel human sex-typing strategies based on the autism candidate gene NLGN4X and its male-specific gametologue NLGN4Y. Biol Sex Differ. 2019;10(1):62. Published 2019 Dec 18. doi: 10.1186/s13293-019-0279-x

Galjaard S et al. Sex differences in fetal growth and immediate birth outcomes in a low-risk Caucasian population. Biol Sex Differ. 2019 Sep 9;10(1):48. DOI:10.1186/s13293-019-0261-7

 J. N. Giedd, A. Raznahan, K. L. Mills, and R. K. Lenroot, “Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female dif- ferences in human adolescent brain anatomy,” Biology of Sex Differences, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 19, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3472204/

Caslin BMaguire CKarmakar AMohler KWylie DMelamed E. Alcohol shifts gut microbial networks and ameliorates a murine model of neuroinflammation in a sex-specific pattern.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 2

Duong, P., Tenkorang, M.A.A., Trieu, J. et al. Neuroprotective and neurotoxic outcomes of androgens and estrogens in an oxidative stress environment. Biol Sex Differ 11, 12 (2020).  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-0283-1 

Demenze e Malattia di Alzheimer

Rahman A. Sex and gender driven modifiers of Alzheimer's: the role for estrogenic control across age, race, medical, and lifestyle risk. Front Aging Neurosci. 2019; 11: 315.doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2019.00315

Congdon EE. Sex Differences in Autophagy Contribute to Female Vulnerability in Alzheimer's Disease. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:372. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2018.00372 

Chih-Ching Liu, Chung-Yi Li, Yu Sun, and Susan C. Hu, “Gender and Age Differences and the Trend in the Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease in Taiwan: A 7-Year National Population-Based Study,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2019, Article ID 5378540, 12 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5378540.

R. A. Miech, J. C. S. Breitner, P. P. Zandi, A. S. Khachaturian, J. C. Anthony, and L. Mayer, “Incidence of AD may decline in the early 90s for men, later for women,” Neurology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 209–218, 2002. https://n.neurology.org/content/58/2/209/tab-article-info

S. Gao, H. C. Hendrie, K. S. Hall, and S. Hui, “The re- lationships between age, sex, and the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer disease,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 809–815, 1998.  10.1001/archpsyc.55.9.809

R. B. Christopher, C. Kaneshiro, J. Yun Jang, A. R. Chandra, N. L. Pedersen, and M. Gatz, “Differences between women and men in incidence rates of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease,” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 1077–1093, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5378540

L. Fratiglioni, M. Viitanen, E. von Strauss, V. Tontodonati, A. Herlitz, and B. Winblad, “Very old women at highest risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: incidence data from the Kungsholmen project, Stockholm,” Neurology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 132–138, 1997. DOI:10.1212/wnl.48.1.132

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W. A. Rocca, M. M. Mielke, P. Vemuri, and V. M. Miller, “Sex and gender differences in the causes of dementia: a narrative review,” Maturitas, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 196–201, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4169309/

M. Mielke, P. Vemuri, and W. Rocca, “Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease: assessing sex and gender differences,” Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 6, pp. 37–48, 2014.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3891487/

 

 

DEPRESSIONE

Tomita TKudo SSugawara NFujii ATsuruga KSato YIshioka MNakamura KYasui-Furukori N. Sex Differences In Psychoeducation For Patients With Depression: A Comparison Of Frequency And Efficacy Of Psychoeducation.Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019 Nov 6;15:3069-3078. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S207544

Williams AV et al. The impact of sex as a biological variable in the search for novel antidepressants.  Front Neuroendocrinol 2018, 50:107-117 DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2018.05.003

Ernst C, Angst J. The Zurich Study. XII. Sex differences in depression. Evidence from longitudinal epidemiological data. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992;241(4):222–230. doi:10.1007/BF02190257

Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Gardner CO. Stressful life events and previous episodes in the etiology of major depression in women: an evaluation of the “kindling” hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157 (8):1243–1251. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.8.1243

Khan A, Brodhead AE, Schwartz KA, Kolts RL, Brown WA. Sex differences in antidepressant response in recent antidepressant clin- ical trials. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;25(4):318–324. doi:10.109 7/01.jcp.0000168879.03169.ce

Kornstein SG, Schatzberg AF, Thase ME, et al. Gender differences in chronic major and double depression. J Affect Disord. 2000;60(1):1– 11. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00158-5Young EA, Kornstein SG, Marcus SM, et al. Sex differences in response to citalopram: a STAR*D report. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43 (5):503–511. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.07.002

Jovanovic H, Lundberg J, Karlsson P, et al. Sex differences in the serotonin 1A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in the human brain measured by PET. Neuroimage. 2008;39(3):1408–1419. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.10.016

Parsey RV, Oquendo MA, Simpson NR, et al. Effects of sex, age, and aggressive traits in man on brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding potential measured by PET using [C-11]WAY-100635. Brain Res. 2002;954(2):173–182. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(02)03243-2

Bethea CL, Mirkes SJ, Su A, Michelson D. Effects of oral estrogen, raloxifene and arzoxifene on gene expression in serotonin neurons of macaques. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002;27(4):431–445. doi:10.101 6/S0306-4530(01)00054-3 

Krivoy A, Balicer RD, Feldman B, et al. The impact of age and gender on adherence to antidepressants: a 4-year population-based cohort study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015;232(18):3385–3390. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-3988-9

Sleath B, Rubin RH. Gender, ethnicity, and physician-patient com- munication about depression and anxiety in primary care. Patient Educ Couns. 2002;48(3):243–252. doi:10.1016/S0738-3991(02)001 77-5

Tohyama SMatsuda SMizutani A.Sex-dependent opposite effects of a tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone on cued fear extinction in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2019 Dec 2:134670. 

 Rosen RCCikesh BFang STrachtenberg FLSeal KHMagnavita AMBovin MJGreen JDBliwise DLMarx BPKeane TM Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Severity and Insomnia-Related Sleep Disturbances: Longitudinal Associations in a Large, Gender-Balanced Cohort of Combat-Exposed Veterans. J Trauma Stress. 2019 Dec 4.  

Hasbi A et al. Sex difference in dopamine D1-D2 receptor complex expression and signaling affects depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Biol Sex Differ. 2020 Feb 22;11(1):8. DOI:10.1186/s13293-020-00285-9

 

Haupt S. Identification of cancer sex-disparity in the functional integrity of p53 and its X chromosome network.Nat Commun. 2019 Nov 26;10(1):5385.doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13266-3

Li CH. Sex Differences in Cancer Driver Genes and Biomarkers. Cancer Res. 2018 Oct 1;78(19):5527-5537. https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/78/19/5527

Conforti F. Cancer immunotherapy efficacy and patients' sex: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Jun;19(6):737-746.DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30261-4

Marchetti P. Sexual Dimorphism of Immune Responses: A New Perspective in Cancer Immunotherapy. Front Immunol. 2018 Mar 21;9:552. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2018.00552

Dorak MT, Karpuzoglu E. Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue. Front Genet. 2012;3:268. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00268

Hogberg J. Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: role of oxidative stress. Carcinogenesis. 2016 Oct;37(10):985-992. DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgw076

M.B. Cook, K.A. McGlynn, S.S. Devesa, N.D. Freedman, W.F. AndersonSex disparities in cancer mortality and survivalCancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 20 (2011), pp. 1629-1637. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0246

Zhu Y. Sex disparities in cancer. Cancer Lett. 2019 Sep 18;466:35-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2019.08.017

Grassadonia A. Effect of Gender on the Outcome of Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Advanced Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Phase III Randomized Clinical Trials. J Clin Med. 2018 Dec 12;7(12). DOI:10.3390/jcm7120542

Botticelli A. The sexist behaviour of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy? Oncotarget. 2017 Nov 1;8(59):99336-99346. DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.22242

Yuan Y.Comprehensive Characterization of Molecular Differences in Cancer between Male and Female Patients. Cancer Cell. 2016 May 9;29(5):711-722. DOI:10.1016/j.ccell.2016.04.001

Clocchiatti A. Sexual dimorphism in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2016 May;16(5):330-9. DOI:10.1038/nrc.2016.30

Kroemer G. Cancer immunotherapy in 2017: The breakthrough of the microbiota. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 Jan 30;18(2):87-88. DOI:10.1038/nri.2018.4

Dunford A. Tumor-suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias. Nat Genet. 2017 Jan;49(1):10-16.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5206905/ 

APPARATO DIGERENTE

Clausen F. Sexual dimorphism in gastric cancer: tumor-associated neutrophils predict patient outcome only for women.J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020 Jan;146(1):53-66. DOI:10.1007/s00432-019-03082-z

Booth CM. The role of sex in the outcomes of patients with biliary tract cancers remains unclear: A population-based study. Am J Surg. 2018 Dec;216(6):1118-1121. DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2018.05.021

Lopes-Ramos CM. Gene Regulatory Network Analysis Identifies Sex-Linked Differences in Colon Cancer Drug Metabolism. Cancer Res. 2018 Oct 1;78(19):5538-5547.DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0454

Lopes-Ramos CM. Correction: Gene Regulatory Network Analysis Identifies Sex-Linked Differences in Colon Cancer Drug Metabolism. Cancer Res. 2019 Apr 15;79(8):2084. https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/79/8/2084

Yang Y. Gender differences in colorectal cancer survival: A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2017 Nov 15;141(10):1942-1949.DOI:10.1002/ijc.30827

Garufi C. Gender effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms and miRNAs targeting clock-genes in metastatic colorectal cancer patients (mCRC). Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 26;6:34006. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036027/

Etxeberria J. Spatial gender-age-period-cohort analysis of pancreatic cancer mortality in Spain (1990-2013). PLoS One. 2017 Feb 15;12(2):e0169751. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5310874/

Nipp R. Disparities in cancer outcomes across age, sex, and race/ethnicity among patients with pancreatic cancer. Cancer Med. 2018 Feb;7(2):525-535. DOI:10.1002/cam4.1277

APPARATO RESPIRATORIO

Vargas AJ. Biomarker development in the precision medicine era: lung cancer as a case study. Nat Rev Cancer. 2016 Aug;16(8):525-37.DOI:10.1038/nrc.2016.56

MELANOMA

Duma N. Sex Differences in Tolerability to Anti-Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Are We All Equal? Oncologist. 2019 Apr 29.DOI: 10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0094

Marzagalli M. Estrogen Receptor beta in Melanoma: From Molecular Insights to Potential Clinical Utility. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2016 Oct 26;7:140.DOI:10.3389/fendo.2016.00140

Tsai. Outcome disparities by sex in melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. 

Gibney GT. Choice of first-line therapy in metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2019 Mar 1;125(5):666-669. DOI:10.1002/cncr.31774

Gupta S. Gender Disparity and Mutation Burden in Metastatic Melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015 Aug 20;107(11). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djv221

Dronca RS. A gender factor in shaping T-cell immunity to melanoma. Front Oncol. 2015 Feb 2;5:8.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4313609/

SISTEMA NERVOSO

Ward S. An integrative view on sex differences in brain tumors. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015 Sep;72(17):3323-42. DOI:10.1007/s00018-015-1930-2

Glioblastoma

Warrington NM. Sex differences in GBM revealed by analysis of patient imaging, transcriptome, and survival data.Sci Transl Med. 2019 Jan 2;11(473). DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.aao5253

Han C. Estrogen receptor variant ER-alpha36 promotes tamoxifen agonist activity in glioblastoma cells. Cancer Sci. 2019 Jan;110(1):221-234.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317923/

TUMORI DELL'OSSO

Cheung MC. Ewing sarcoma demonstrates racial disparities in incidence-related and sex-related differences in outcome: an analysis of 1631 cases from the SEER database, 1973-2005. Cancer. 2009 Aug 1;115(15):3526-36. DOI:10.1002/cncr.24388

TUMORI DELLA TIROIDE

 Rahbari R, Zhang L, Kebebew E. Thyroid cancer gender disparity. Future Oncol. 2010;6(11):1771–1779. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077966/

TUMORI DELLE CELLULE DEL SANGUE

Liu Y. Sex-related DNA methylation differences in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Biol Sex Differ. 2019 Jan 7;10(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s13293-018-0213-7. DOI:10.1186/s13293-018-0213-7

Cicconi L. et al. Long-term results of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in non-high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia: update of the APL0406 Italian-German randomized trial. Leukemia 2019 Oct 14. DOI:10.1038/s41375-019-0589-3

 Lo Coco F et al Retinoic Acid and Arsenic Trioxide for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia N Engl J of Med 2013, 369:111-121  DOI: 10.1056/nejmoa1300874 

 TUMORI DELL'APPARATO URINARIO

Mancini M. et al. Spotlight on gender-specific disparities in bladder cancer. Urologia. 2019 Dec 23:391560319887327. DOI:10.1177/0391560319887327

Low Back Pain 

Jùn-Qīng Wáng, and Zoltán Káplár. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2016 Apr; 6(2): 199–206. doi: 10.21037/qims.2016.04.06.

Paul S Sung, J Tim Zipple, Pamela Danial. Gender Differences in Asymmetrical Limb Support Patterns Between Subjects With and Without Recurrent Low Back Pain. Hum Mov Sci , 52, 36-44 Apr 2017

Esther Pries, Marcel Dreischarf ... Hendrik Schmidt. The Effects of Age and Gender on the Lumbopelvic Rhythm in the Sagittal Plane in 309 Subjects. J Biomech , 48 (12), 3080-7 2015 Sep 18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.07.030

Rei Ono, Shin Yamazaki ... Shunichi Fukuhara. Gender Difference in Association Between Low Back Pain and Metabolic Syndrome: Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS). Spine (Phila Pa 1976) , 37 (13), 1130-7 2012 Jun 1. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31824231b8

Gheorghe Ungureanu, Alexandra Chitu ... Ioan Stefan Florian. Gender Differences in the Self-assessment of Quality of Life and Disability After Spinal Fusion for Chronic Low Back . Pain at a Neurosurgical Center in Eastern Europe. Neurospine , 15 (3), 261-268 Sep 2018

 

Osteoartrosi

Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Andrew Judge ... Nigel K Arden. Incidence and Risk Factors for Clinically Diagnosed Knee, Hip and Hand Osteoarthritis: Influences of Age, Gender and Osteoarthritis Affecting Other Joints. Ann Rheum Dis , 73 (9), 1659-64 Sep 2014

 

 

Traumatologia

L Vranken, C E Wyers ... J P Van den Bergh. Comorbidities and Medication Use in Patients With a Recent Clinical Fracture at the Fracture Liaison Service. Osteoporos Int , 29 (2), 397-407 Feb 2018.DOI: 10.1007/s00198-017-4290-y

Robert S Sterling. Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Hip Fracture Incidence, Morbidity, Mortality, and Function. Clin Orthop Relat Res , 469 (7), 1913-8 Jul 2011. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-010-1736-3

Lorena Saletti-Cuesta, Liz Tutton, Julie Wright. The Relevance of Gender in the Care of Hip Fracture Patients.Int J Orthop Trauma Nurs , 22, 3-12 Aug 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijotn.2015.10.004

Adam S Galbraith, Clara Sanz-Nogués ... Colin MurphyDiabetes Mellitus and Gender Have a Negative Impact on the Outcome of Hip Fracture Surgery-A Pilot Study. J Orthop Res 2019 Nov 7[Online ahead of print]. DOI: 10.1002/jor.24517Integrating a Gender Dimension Into Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Research . Gend Med , 4 Suppl B, S147-61 2007. DOI: 10.1016/s1550-8579(07)80055-6

T J Beck, C B Ruff ... S K Brodine. Stress Fracture in Military Recruits: Gender Differences in Muscle and Bone Susceptibility Factors. Bone, 27 (3), 437-44 Sep 2000

Cohen GH, Sampson LA, Fink DS, Wang J, Russell D, Gifford R, et al. Gender, position of authority, and the risk of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among a National Sample of U.S. reserve component personnel. Womens Health Issues. 2016;26(3):268–277. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2016.01.001

Hourani L, Williams J, Bray RM, Wilk JE, Hoge CW. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Help Seeking in the U.S. Army. J Womens Health (2002) 2016;25(1):22–31. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2014.5078

Crum-Cianflone NF, Jacobson I. Gender differences of postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder among service members and veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. Epidemiol Rev. 2014;36:5–18.  DOI:10.1093/epirev/mxt005

Guma E et al. Neuroanatomical and Symptomatic Sex Differences in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis  Front Psychiatry 2017, vol 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00291

Rebecca MShansky. . Sex differences in PTSD resilience and susceptibility: Challenges for animal models of fear learning. Neurobiology of Stress Volume 1, January 2015, Pages 60-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2014.09.005

Tzeng, Wen-Chii & Chiang, Yu‐Shuang & Feng, Hsin‐Pei & Chien, Wu‐Chien & Tai, Yueh‐Ming & Chen, Mei‐Jung. (2019). Gender differences in metabolic syndrome risk factors among patients with serious mental illness. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 10.1111/inm.12670

Jingyi Qian, Christopher J. Morris, Rosanna Caputo, Wei Wang, Marta Garaulet, Frank A. J. L. Scheer Sex differences in the circadian misalignment effects on energy regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Nov 19; 116(47): 23806–23812. Published online 2019 Nov 4. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1914003116

DISFORIA DI GENERE

D S Adnan Majid,  Sarah M Burke,  Amirhossein Manzouri,  Teena D MoodyCecilia Dhejne,  Jamie D Feusner,  Ivanka Savic. Neural Systems for Own-body Processing Align with Gender Identity Rather Than Birth-assigned Sex. Cerebral Cortex, bhz282. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz282

Bandini E, Fisher AD, Castellini G, Sauro CL, Lelli L, Meriggiola, MC, Casale H et al. 2013. Gender identity disorder and eat- ing disorders: similarities and differences in terms of body uneasiness. J Sex Med. 10(4):1012–1023. DOI:10.1111/jsm.12062

Burke SM, Adnan Majid DS, Manzouri AH, Moody T, Feusner JD, Savic I. 2019. Sex differences in own and other body perception. Hum Brain Mapp. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24388. DOI:10.1002/hbm.24388

Burke SM, Manzouri AH, Dhejne C, Bergström K, Arver S, Feusner JD, Savic-Berglund I. 2018. Testosterone effects on the brain in transgender men. Cereb Cortex. 28(5):1582–1596. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhx054

Burke SM, Manzouri AH, Savic I. 2017. Structural connections in the brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. Sci Rep. 7(1):17954. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17352-8. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-17352-8

Case LK, Brang D, Landazuri R, Viswanathan P, Ramachandran VS. 2017. Altered white matter and sensory response to bodily sensation in female-to-male transgender individuals. Arch Sex Behav. 46(5):1223–1237. DOI:10.1007/s10508-016-0850-z

Cohen-Kettenis PT, Pfäfflin F. 2010. The DSM diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder in adolescents and adults. Arch Sex Behav. 39(2):499–513. DOI:10.1007/s10508-009-9562-y

Dörner G. 1988. Neuroendocrine response to estrogen and brain differentiation in heterosexuals, homosexuals, and transsex- uals. Arch Sex Behav. 17(1):57–75. DOI:10.1007/bf01542052

Feusner JD, Dervisic J, Kosidou K, Dhejne C, Bookheimer S, Savic I. 2016. Female-to-male transsexual individuals demon- strate different own body identification. Arch Sex Behav. 45(3):525–536. DOI:10.1007/s10508-015-0596-z

Feusner JD, Lidström A, Moody TD, Dhejne C, Bookheimer SY, Savic I. 2017. Intrinsic network connectivity and own body perception in gender dysphoria. Brain Imaging Behav. 11(4):964–976. DOI:10.1007/s11682-016-9578-6

Kilpatrick LA, Holmberg M, Manzouri AH, Savic I. 2019. Cross sex hormone treatment is linked with a reversal of cerebral patterns associated with gender dysphoria to the baseline of cisgender controls. Eur J Neurosci. 50(8):3269–3281. DOI:10.1111/ejn.14420

Kinsey AC, Pomeroy WR, Martin CE. 2003. Sexual behavior in the human male. 1948. Am J Public Health. 93(6):894–898. DOI:10.2105/ajph.93.6.894

Manzouri AH, Kosidou K, Savic I. 2017. Anatomical and functional findings in female-to-male transsexuals: testing a new hypothesis. Cereb Cortex. 27(2):998–1010.Manzouri A, Savic I. 2019. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv278

Manzouri A. Possible neurobiological underpin- nings of homosexuality and gender dysphoria. Cereb Cortex. 29(5):2084–2101. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhy090

Swaab DF, Hofman MA. 1995. Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus in relation to gender and sexual ori- entation. Trends Neurosci. 18(6):264–270. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7571001

Savic I, Arver S. 2014. Sex differences in cortical thickness and their possible genetic and sex hormonal underpinnings. Cereb Cortex. 24(12):3246–3257. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bht180

Savic I, Arver S. 2011. Sex dimorphism of the brain in male-to- female transsexuals. Cereb Cortex. 21(11):2525–2533. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhr032

Gliske SV. A new theory of gender dysphoria incorporating the distress, social behavioral, and body-ownership networks.eNeuro. 2019 Dec 2. pii: ENEURO.0183-19.2019.

Altinay M, Anand A (2019) Neuroimaging gender dysphoria: a novel psychobiological model. Brain Imaging Behav. 

Bakker J, van Ophemert J, Slob AK (1993) Organization of partner preference and sexual behavior and its nocturnal rhythmicity in male rats. Behav Neurosci 107:1049–58.

 

Luger T, Seibt R, Rieger MA, Steinhilber B. Sex differences in muscle activity and motor variability in response to a non-fatiguing repetitive screwing task. Biol Sex Differ. 2020;11(1):6. Published 2020 Jan 28. DOI:10.1186/s13293-020-0282-2

Rosa-Caldwell ME et al. Muscle metabolism and atrophy: let's talk about sex. Biol Sex Differ. 2019 Aug 28;10(1):43.DOI:10.1186/s13293-019-0257-3

Schisterman EF, Swanson CW, Lu YL, Mumford SL. The Changing Face of Epidemiology: Gender Disparities in Citations?. Epidemiology. 2017;28(2):159–168. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000000593

Miller LR, Marks C, Becker JB, et al. Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research. FASEB J. 2017;31(1):29–34. doi: https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201600781R

Clayton JA, Tannenbaum C. Sex and Gender Reporting in Research-Reply. JAMA. 2017;317(9):975. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.0151

Streed CG Jr, Makadon HJ. Sex and Gender Reporting in Research. JAMA. 2017;317(9):974–975. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.0145

Heidari S, Babor TF, De Castro P, Tort S, Curno M. Sex and Gender Equity in Research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use. Res Integr Peer Rev. 2016;1:2. Published 2016 May 3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-016-0007-6

Franconi F, Campesi I, Colombo D, Antonini P. Sex-Gender Variable: Methodological Recommendations for Increasing Scientific Value of Clinical Studies. Cells. 2019;8(5):476. Published 2019 May 17. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050476

Geller SE, Koch AR, Roesch P, Filut A, Hallgren E, Carnes M. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: A Study to Evaluate Compliance With Inclusion and Assessment of Women and Minorities in Randomized Controlled Trials. Acad Med. 2018;93(4):630–635. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002027

Woitowich NC, Woodruff TK. Implementation of the NIH Sex-Inclusion Policy: Attitudes and Opinions of Study Section Members. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019;28(1):9–16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2018.7396

Shannon G, Jansen M, Williams K, et al. Gender equality in science, medicine, and global health: where are we at and why does it matter?. Lancet. 2019;393(10171):560–569. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33135-0

Woitowich NC, Woodruff TK. Opinion: Research community needs to better appreciate the value of sex-based research. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;116(15):7154–7156. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1903586116

Goldstein, Robert H. Where Were the Women? Gender Parity in Clinical Trials. N Engl J Med 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1913547

F. Daniel Ramirez, Pouya Motazedian, Richard G. Jung, Pietro Di Santo, Zachary MacDonald, Trevor Simard, Aisling A. Clancy, Juan J. Russo, Vivian Welch, George A. Wells, et al. Sex Bias Is Increasingly Prevalent in Preclinical Cardiovascular Research: Implications for Translational Medicine and Health Equity for Women: A Systematic Assessment of Leading Cardiovascular Journals Over a 10-Year Period.Circulation. 2017 Feb 7; 135(6): 625–626.DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.026668

Franconi F, Campesi I, Colombo D, Antonini P. Sex-Gender Variable: Methodological Recommendations for Increasing Scientific Value of Clinical Studies. Cells 20198(5), 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050476
 
Bartz D, et al. Clinical Advances in Sex- and Gender-Informed Medicine to Improve the Health of All A Review.JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Feb 10.DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.7194

 

Giannico OV, Ambrosino I, Patano F, Germinario C, Quarto M, Moretti AM. Educational level, marital status and sex as social gender discharge determinants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a time-to-event analysis. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2019;89(2):10.4081/monaldi.2019.1017. Published 2019 May 24. doi: https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2019.1017 

 

Mackenbach JP, Kulhánová I, Artnik B, et al. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries. BMJ. 2016;353:i1732. Published 2016 Apr 11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i1732

 

Katikireddi SV. Economic opportunity: a determinant of health?. Lancet Public Health. 2016;1(1):e4–e5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(16)30004-4

 

Escolar-Pujolar A, Córdoba Doña JA, Goicolea Julían I, et al. The effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in diabetes mortality in Andalusia. El efecto del estado civil sobre las desigualdades sociales y de género en la mortalidad por diabetes mellitus en Andalucía. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr. 2018;65(1):21–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.endinu.2017.10.006

Carrieri V, Jones AM. Inequality of opportunity in health: A decomposition-based approach. Health Econ. 2018;27(12):1981–1995. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.3814

O'Neil A, Scovelle AJ, Milner AJ, Kavanagh A. Gender/Sex as a Social Determinant of Cardiovascular Risk. Circulation. 2018;137(8):854–864. doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.028595

Stringhini S, Carmeli C, Jokela M, et al. Socioeconomic status and the 25 × 25 risk factors as determinants of premature mortality: a multicohort study and meta-analysis of 1·7 million men and women [published correction appears in Lancet. 2017 Mar 25;389(10075):1194] [published correction appears in Lancet. 2017 Mar 25;389(10075):1194]. Lancet. 2017;389(10075):1229–1237. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32380-7 

Boerma T, Hosseinpoor AR, Verdes E, Chatterji S. A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:675. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3352-y

Bambra C, Pope D, Swami V, Stanistreet D, Roskam A, Kunst A, et al. Gender, health inequalities and welfare state regimes: a cross-national study of 13 European countries. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009;63(1):38–44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2007.070292.

Zajacova A, Huzurbazar S, Todd M. Gender and the structure of self-rated health across the adult life span. Soc Sci Med. 2017;187:58–66. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.06.019.

Artazcoz L, Borrell C, Cortes I, Escriba-Aguir V, Cascant L. Occupational epidemiology and work related inequalities in health: a gender perspective for two complementary approaches to work and health research. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61(Suppl 2):ii39–ii45.

 Emslie C, Hunt K, Macintyre S. Gender differences in minor morbidity among full time employees of a British university. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999;53(8):465–475. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.53.8.465.

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Caroli E, Weber-Baghdiguian L. Self-reported health and gender: the role of social norms. Soc Sci Med. 2016;153:220–229. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.02.023.

Lande RG, Marin BA, Chang AS, Lande GR. Gender differences and alcohol use in the US Army. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2007;107(9):401–407. 

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 Chylińska J, Lazarewicz M, Rzadkiewicz M, Adamus M, Jaworski M, Haugan G, et al. The role of gender in the active attitude toward treatment and health among older patients in primary health care-self-assessed health status and sociodemographic factors as moderators. BMC Geriatr. 2017; 17: 284.

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Yusuf et al Interpreting Geographic Variations in Results of Randomized, Controlled Trials. N engl J Med 2016; 375:2263-227.  DOI:10.1056/NEJMra1510065

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Clayton JA. Studying both sexes: a guiding principle for biomedicine. FASEB J. 2016;30(2):519–524. DOI:10.1096/fj.15-279554

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Jagsi R, Biga C, Poppas A, et al. Work activities and compensation of male and female cardiologists. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:529–541. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.10.038

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Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Jones R, Perumalswami CR, Ubel P, Stewart A. Sexual harassment and discrimination experiences of academic medical faculty. JAMA. 2016;315:2120–2121. DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.2188

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